Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
Throughout this document whenever “we”, “us”, or “our” is used, we mean EPA. This section provides additional information by addressing the following questions:
Section 110 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires states to develop air pollution regulations limiting emissions and control strategies to ensure that state air quality meets the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) established by EPA. These ambient standards are established under section 109 of the CAA, and they currently address six criteria pollutants. These pollutants are: Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, lead, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide.
Each state must submit these regulations and control strategies to us for approval and incorporation into the Federally-enforceable SIP.
Each Federally-approved SIP protects air quality primarily by addressing air pollution at its point of origin. These SIPs can be extensive, containing state regulations or other enforceable documents and supporting information such as emission inventories, monitoring networks, and modeling demonstrations.
In order for state regulations to be incorporated into the Federally-enforceable SIP, states must formally adopt the regulations and control strategies consistent with state and Federal requirements. This process generally includes a public notice, public hearing, public comment period, and a formal adoption by a state-authorized rulemaking body.
Once a state rule, regulation, or control strategy is adopted, the state submits it to us for inclusion into the SIP. We must provide public notice and seek additional public comment regarding the proposed Federal action on the state submission. If adverse comments are received, they must be addressed prior to any final Federal action by us.
All state regulations and supporting information approved by EPA under section 110 of the CAA are incorporated into the Federally-approved SIP. Records of such SIP actions are maintained in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40, Part 52, entitled “Approval and Promulgation of
In order to be approved into a SIP, the submittal must meet the requirements of section 110. In determining the approvability of a SIP revision, EPA must evaluate the proposed revision for consistency with the requirements of the CAA and our regulations, as found in section 110 and part D of Title I of the CAA amendments and 40 CFR Part 51 (Requirements for Preparation, Adoption, and Submittal of Implementation Plans).
The CAA has additional requirements for the approval of SIPs containing certain state fuel controls. Section 211(c)(4)(A) of the CAA prohibits states from prescribing or attempting to enforce regulations respecting fuel characteristics or components if EPA has adopted Federal controls under section 211(c)(1) applicable to such fuel characteristics or components, unless the state control is identical to the Federal control. Section 211(c)(4) includes two exceptions to this prohibition. First, under section 211(c)(4)(B), California is not subject to the preemption in section 211(c)(4)(A). Second, a State may prescribe or enforce such otherwise preempted fuel controls if the measure is approved into a SIP.
Under section 211(c)(4)(C), we may approve such state fuel controls into a SIP, if the state demonstrates that the measure is necessary to achieve the NAAQS. Section 211(c)(4)(C) specifies that a state fuel requirement is “necessary” if no other measures would bring about timely attainment, or if other measures exist but are unreasonable or impracticable. As discussed in more detail below, the State rule approved today merely amends the State fuel control that has already been approved into the SIP and addresses emissions reductions shortfalls that EPA has already determined are required under the Act. Therefore, a new demonstration of necessity under section 211(c)(4)(C) is not required.
Enforcement of the state regulation before and after it is incorporated into the Federally-approved SIP is primarily a state responsibility. However, after the regulation is Federally approved, we are authorized to take enforcement action against violators. Citizens are also offered legal recourse to address violations as described in section 304 of the CAA.
RVP is a measure of a fuel's volatility and thereby affects the rate at which gasoline evaporates and emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs), an ozone forming pollutant. VOCs are an important component in the production of ground-level ozone in the hot summer months. RVP is directly proportional to the rate of evaporation. Consequently, the lower the RVP, the lower the rate of evaporation. Lowering the RVP in the summer months can offset the effect of summer temperature upon the volatility of gasoline, which, in turn, lowers emissions of VOCs. Reduction of the RVP will help the state's effort to maintain the NAAQS for ozone.
On May 17, 2001, MDNR requested that we revise the SIP to reflect its amendments to the State RVP controls. On June 13, 2001, Missouri submitted an addendum. Included in the submittal was a letter from Roger Randolph, Director, Air Pollution Control Program, MDNR, to William W. Rice, Acting EPA Region 7 Administrator, requesting a SIP revision, the regulation 10 CSR 10-2.330, and supporting documentation. The state held a public hearing on December 7, 2000; the rule was adopted on February 6, 2001, and the rule became effective on May 30, 2001.
As mentioned above, section 211(c)(4) of the CAA prohibits states from adopting or attempting to enforce controls or prohibitions respecting certain fuel characteristics or components unless the SIP for the State so provides. The CAA specifies that we may approve such state fuel controls into a SIP only upon a finding that the control is “necessary” to achieve a NAAQS as defined under section 211(c)(4)(C). Section 211(c)(4)(C) does not, however, address the ability of states to modify fuel control programs that have already been deemed necessary and approved into a SIP.
Missouri is not seeking approval of a new control or prohibition respecting a fuel characteristic or component. Instead, Missouri is seeking approval of a change to the approved RVP control to adjust the level of the standard. Given the original 1998 (final approval) determination that the State RVP control was necessary to respond to the violations of the NAAQS, the violation and the additional exceedances which occurred after the implementation of the 7.2 psi RVP control, and the fact that the necessary reductions called for in the State's maintenance plan have still not been achieved, we believe it is reasonable to approve the amendments to the RVP standard without a new demonstration of necessity under section 211(c)(4)(C). This action approves the State's amendments to its RVP standards and revises the SIP.
The State submittal has met the public notice requirements for SIP submissions in accordance with 40 CFR 51.102. The submittal also satisfied the completeness criteria of 40 CFR part 51, appendix V. In addition, as explained above and in the technical support document which is part of this document, the revision meets the substantive SIP requirements of the CAA, including section 110 and part D of Title I and implementing regulations. Our proposed rulemaking, which included a detailed discussion of our rationale for proposing to approve the rule, was published November 16, 2001 (66 FR 57693), and no comments were received on the proposal.
We are approving this revision to the Missouri SIP concerning 10 CSR 10-2.330 as it meets the requirements of the CAA.
Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), this action is not a “significant regulatory action” and therefore is not subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget. For this reason, this action is also not subject to Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use” (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This action merely approves state law as meeting Federal requirements and imposes no additional requirements beyond those imposed by state law. Accordingly, the Administrator certifies that this rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601
This rule also does not have tribal implications because it will not have a substantial direct effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). This action also does not have Federalism implications because it does not have substantial direct effects on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999). This action merely approves a state rule implementing a Federal standard, and does not alter the relationship or the distribution of power and responsibilities established in the CAA. This rule also is not subject to Executive Order 13045 “Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks” (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), because it is not economically significant.
In reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the CAA. In this context, in the absence of a prior existing requirement for the State to use voluntary consensus standards (VCS), EPA has no authority to disapprove a SIP submission for failure to use VCS. It would thus be inconsistent with applicable law for EPA, when it reviews a SIP submission, to use VCS in place of a SIP submission that otherwise satisfies the provisions of the CAA. Thus, the requirements of section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) do not apply. This rule does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501
The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801
Under section 307(b)(1) of the CAA, petitions for judicial review of this action must be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit by April 15, 2002. Filing a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of this final rule does not affect the finality of this rule for the purposes of judicial review nor does it extend the time within which a petition for judicial review may be filed, and shall not postpone the effectiveness of such rule or action. This action may not be challenged later in proceedings to enforce its requirements. (See section 307(b)(2).)
Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Hydrocarbons, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Lead, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Sulfur oxides.
42 U.S.C. 7401
(c) * * *