Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
This is a summary of the Commission's
1. On May 13, 2004, the Commission adopted a
2. The comments received in response to the NPRM were divided between the prospective manufacturers and users of unlicensed devices who believe adequate safeguards can be put in place to prevent harmful interference to authorized services, and the existing users of the TV bands who are concerned about potential interference. A number of broadband equipment manufacturers, trade associations and other parties supported allowing unlicensed operation in the TV bands. These parties generally stated that unlicensed devices could operate in the TV bands without causing interference to authorized services. They further stated that allowing such operation in the TV bands could improve access to broadband communications by taking advantage of the favorable propagation characteristics of the TV spectrum and that this would result in more efficient use of this spectrum.
3. Full service and low power TV broadcasters generally opposed allowing unlicensed operation in the TV bands, expressing concern that unlicensed devices operating under the proposed rules would cause interference to TV reception, particularly in weak signal areas. Several parties also expressed concern that unlicensed devices operating in close proximity to TV receivers would cause direct pick-up interference potentially affecting all channels. Manufacturers and users of wireless microphones and other broadcast auxiliary services submitted that unlicensed devices would cause harmful interference to those services. Those parties recommended that the Commission take a number of steps to protect auxiliary services. Land mobile interests expressed concern about allowing unlicensed operation on channels 14-20 in any part of the country because devices could be transported into areas where those channels are used for PLMRS/CMRS operations.
4. On October 12, 2006, the Commission adopted the
5. In the
6. The comments responding to the
7. Full service and low power TV broadcasters and cable TV interests generally state that any new services in the TV bands should be licensed to reduce the likelihood of interference to incumbent services. They oppose the introduction of personal/portable devices at this time and believe that any new services should be limited to fixed operation. Broadcasters contend that spectrum sensing alone is inadequate to protect against interference to broadcast operations and that sensing must be combined with geo-location/database access to ensure that low power devices do not operate inside the protected service contours of co-channel or adjacent-channel TV stations. Low power TV and translator operators express concern that low power unlicensed devices would cause interference to viewers who rely on reception outside their stations' protected service contours, while cable interests express concern about possible interference to reception of TV signals by cable headends that are located outside TV stations' protected contours. Both broadcast and cable interests express concern about direct pick-up interference to TV receivers, particularly from personal/portable devices.
8. Wireless microphone manufacturers and users again recommend that the Commission adopt a number of requirements to prevent interference to wireless microphones, including: (1) Limiting new low power devices to fixed operation, (2) prohibiting new low power devices from operating on channels adjacent to occupied TV channels and/or reserving six vacant TV channels in each market for wireless microphones to ensure that spectrum is available for their use, (3) requiring new low power devices to incorporate spectrum sensing to detect wireless microphones, and (4) requiring new low power devices to sense for the presence of a “smart beacon” that would be operated when wireless microphones are in use in an area (Shure has since repudiated its support for a beacon requirement). Public safety/land mobile interests believe that new low power devices should not be allowed to operate on channels 14-20 anywhere in the country because of the difficulties in enforcing geographic restrictions on operation.
9. On March 30, 2007, the Commission's Office of Engineering and Technology released a report on the results of its DTV receiver testing program, see DA 07-3457, 22 FCC Rcd 13846 (2007). This testing program examined the out-of-channel interference rejection performance of a representative sample of eight DTV receivers with fifth generation tuners that were available in 2005 and 2006. A total of 2055 individual measurements were performed on these receivers. Each test involved feeding a desired signal to the television under test and injecting an interfering signal on a different channel or combination of channels. The different tests varied the level of the desired signal and interfering signal(s). In these tests, no receiver appeared to fully achieve the Advanced Television Systems Committee's (ATSC) recommended guidelines for interference rejection performance—guidelines that are generally more stringent than the receiver performance assumptions on which current DTV interference protection criteria are based. However, the tests did show that the performance of digital television receivers exceeds the performance levels on which the Commission's digital television service and interference rules are based.
10. On July 31, 2007, the Office of Engineering and Technology released a technical report on an initial study of prototype TV band devices that were submitted to the Commission's Laboratory for testing. This report evaluated the performance of two samples of prototype devices; one device had both sensing and transmitting capabilities (although the two functions were not linked) and the other had only sensing capability. This testing found that one of the two devices was generally able to reliably detect TV signals in the laboratory bench tests at the claimed −114 dBm sensing level, but did not perform well sensing wireless microphones. This device was not tested in the field at the manufacturer's request. The other device was not able to reliably sense either TV or wireless microphone
11. Also on July 31, 2007, the Office of Engineering and Technology released a second technical report describing direct pick-up interference tests of three digital cable ready television receivers. In these tests, three digital cable ready (DCR) receivers connected directly to cable service were examined for their susceptibility to interference from devices such as might operate within the TV white spaces. Tests were performed with the interfering signal source separated from the DCR receiver by distances of 2 meters or ten meters and, in most observations, by a residential wall. These tests showed that a signal as low as 6.3 dBm EIRP could cause interference at a distance of two meters and that a signal as low as 15.3 dBm could cause interference at a distance of 10 meters. While these tests were limited in scope (only three receivers were tested), they nonetheless provide an empirical demonstration of the potential for such interference at relatively low power levels.
12. On October 15, 2008, the Office of Engineering and Technology issued a technical report on a second phase of its study of sample prototype TV band devices. This second phase study examined the performance of prototype devices from five parties. All of these devices had capabilities for sensing TV signals, three had capabilities for sensing wireless microphones and one (that of Adaptrum) had a transmit capability (this transmit capability was not linked to the device's sensing capabilities). One of the devices (that of Motorola) also had a geolocation/ database access capability.
13. In the laboratory tests of TV signals, the Phase II prototype devices were able to detect a “clean,”
14. TV sensing field tests were performed at nine locations with four of the prototype devices. In most cases, the devices correctly reported channels as occupied when the device was operated within the service contour of the stations broadcasting on those channels and viewable signals were observed on the channels. In some instances, however, three of the devices incorrectly reported channels as unoccupied (available) when the device was operated within a station's service contour and the signal was viewable. All of the devices reported some channels as occupied when the WSD was operated outside of the service contours of stations broadcasting on those channels whether the signal was viewable or not. In addition, one device generally reported most channels occupied, whether the device was operating inside or outside any service contours and whether the signal was viewable or not. During the field tests, the Motorola device's geolocation/database access feature was used in combination with its sensing capabilities. In those tests, the Motorola device correctly reported all occupied channels used by stations within whose contours the WSD was operated.
15. The second phase study also examined the ability of devices to sense wireless microphones designed to operate under part 74 of our rules. The two operating devices with wireless microphone sensing capability, those of Philips and I2R, were tested in the laboratory for their ability to detect wireless microphones (models using both FM/analog and digital) operating within UHF TV channels. With no other signals present, the devices were able to detect wireless microphones at levels ranging from −103 dBm to −129 dBm depending on the type of microphone, and the device. However, in the presence of DTV signals in adjacent channels, the detection threshold of both devices was degraded such that it affected the ability of the devices to reliably detect the microphone signals.
16. Finally, the second phase study conducted tests with the Adaptrum device's transmitter. The device's transmitter was characterized in the laboratory and then used to investigate interference potential to DTV signal reception. Anecdotal tests demonstrated that co-channel interference would occur at line-of-sight distances of up to 360 meters at an EIRP level of approximately +7 dBm when the DTV set was receiving a weak signal off-the-air using a receive antenna at a height of 9.3 meters. No interference was observed when the device transmitted on an immediate adjacent channel even with the transmitter in close proximity to the receiver with a roof-top antenna. No other configurations were tested for interference. Anecdotal tests with the Adaptrum transmitter were performed at two field sites to assess the interference potential from a TVBD transmitter to cable television reception via direct pick-up of signals by cable system components. These tests showed that under certain circumstances, when the transmit antenna was placed in close proximity to a cable connected TV, direct pick-up interference occurred. The report indicated that the direct pick-up interference potential appears to be highly dependent on the interconnection among the various receive system components (e.g., cable amplifiers, splitters and set-top boxes) being used.
17. In the
18. The Commission adopted a plan that will allow both fixed and personal/portable unlicensed devices to operate on unused television channels in locations where such operations will not result in harmful interference to TV services (including reception by cable headends and low power TV stations, i.e., TV translator, low power TV, TV booster, and Class A TV stations) and other services that use the TV bands. The Commission recognizes the importance of protecting licensed services from harmful interference and the novel challenges involved in reliably identifying unused TV channels. Therefore, it is taking a cautious and conservative approach in this plan, balancing the need to provide sufficient opportunities for proponents to develop viable unlicensed TV band devices (TVBDs) with measures to ensure that such devices fully protect the important licensed services that operate in the TV bands. In allowing the introduction of unlicensed TVBDs, the Commission also believes it is important to avoid the possibility of disrupting or causing uncertainty in the DTV transition, the current ongoing process whereby TV stations are changing from analog to digital (DTV) operation. As set forth in the
19. The Commission anticipates that the capabilities of products for operating in this spectrum will develop and evolve over time and that much will be learned about the potential for unlicensed TVBDs to cause interference to licensed services and how to avoid that interference. Therefore, the Commission may need to revisit these rules to make adjustments both to provide more flexibility for unlicensed devices and to refine the protections for licensed services. Consistent with our objective to allow unlicensed TVBDs to operate with the most flexibility and capabilities possible consistent with protection of licensed services, the Commission has directed its staff to conduct a review and report to the Commission in two years from the date of this
20. The Commission also denied all aspects of a petition for reconsideration submitted by the New America Foundation and the Champaign Urbana Wireless Network (NAF/CUWN). In particular, the Commission denied their request that it (1) Not re-open the issue of whether to permit new uses of the TV bands on a licensed or unlicensed basis; (2) allow personal/portable devices on channels 14-20; and (3) allow marketing of new unlicensed TV band devices prior to the end of the DTV transition.
(a) A fixed device must employ both geo-location/database access and spectrum sensing capabilities that enable the device to listen for and identify the presence of signals from other transmitters; the geo-location function for a fixed device may also be performed by a professional installer;
(b) A personal/portable device must either (1) be under the control of a fixed device or a personal/portable device that employs geo-location/database access and spectrum sensing or (2) employ geo-location/database access and spectrum sensing itself.
22. In addition, the Commission adopted rules that will allow for certification of personal/portable devices that do not include geo-location and database access capabilities and are not controlled by another device but rather determine available channels using spectrum sensing, perhaps in combination with some other techniques. These devices will be required to meet a “proof of performance” standard that they will not cause harmful interference to incumbent radio services. Such devices will be subject to all of the other requirements for personal/portable devices but would be limited to 50 milliwatts (mW) EIRP rather than the 100 mW authorized for personal/portable devices for which available channels are determined based on the geo-location and database method. The certification process will require submittal of a sample for testing in our laboratory and in the field similar to the process that the FCC Laboratory followed for testing of TV band devices. The sample device must be a fully functioning pre-production prototype, identical to the device that will be marketed except for cosmetics. The testing will be open to the public. The application must also show how the device will protect the various incumbent radio services discussed. The determination of whether to certify the device will be based on a demonstrated ability to avoid causing harmful interference with an extremely high degree of reliability. If the device is certificated, the Commission will permit routine certification of other devices that have identical characteristics (i.e., have the identical electrical characteristics and antenna system). It will endeavor to complete the certification process within 180 days of submittal of the device for testing, barring any unforeseen circumstances.
26. All unlicensed fixed TV band devices and all personal/portable devices, except for those that operate in Mode I under control of a fixed or Mode II personal/portable device, will be required to access a TV bands database to obtain information on the available channels at their location and all unlicensed fixed TVBDs will be required to register their operations. In the
28. Unlicensed TV band devices, except for those operating as a client to a either a fixed device or a personal/portable device operating in Mode II, will be required to contact a TV bands database through the Internet to obtain a list of available channels at their location in accordance with the rules set forth herein. Database administrator(s) will define protocols so that TV band devices can access a database automatically without human intervention. A TV bands database will calculate the television channels that are available for use by unlicensed TV band devices at their individual locations based on the information in the database and consistent with the separation distances set forth in the rules and then return a list of those channels to the TV band device on an approximately real-time basis. A device may then transmit only on those channels which the database indicates are available for its use. The database system will also record registration information from each fixed TV band device. The registration information will include the device's location (geographic coordinates) and contact information for its user/operator. This registration information will assist TV band device users in coordinating efficient use of the available television channels at a particular location. In addition, should any interference to licensed services occur, the registration information will assist in the identification of the source of any such interference. Finally, a TV bands database will include provisions for sharing registration data with any other Commission authorized TV bands database.
29. In considering a minimum interval for re-contacting the database system, it is important to note that protection is afforded not only to TV and other fixed facilities that do not change often, but also to mobile/portable facilities such as wireless microphones. As already described, the Commission will allow venues where wireless microphones and other low power auxiliary devices are used on a regular or scheduled basis to register such usage in the TV bands database. Because such usage could change on a daily basis, the Commission will require that fixed and mode II TVBDs to recheck the database, at a minimum, on a daily basis. Rechecking in this manner will also provide for timely protection of new or modified licensed facilities. This approach accounts for the continual changes that will occur over time as new licenses are issued or inaccuracies are corrected. The Commission believes that because database access will be performed automatically over the Internet, rechecking the available channels will not be burdensome. If a device fails to contact a TV bands database on any given day, it will be required to cease transmitting after a one-day grace period. That is, it must cease operating at 11:59 PM on the day following a day when it does not contact a TV bands database. This grace period will allow for situations where there has been a sustained power loss, an Internet outage, or other circumstances that disrupt a device's ability to contact a TV bands database. In accessing a TV bands database to update its list of available channels, a device will only need to provide its identification information, current location and, for fixed devices, any changes in its registration information.
30. In addition to the daily database update requirement, personal/portable devices operating in Mode II will be required to re-establish their location coordinates and to access a TV bands database for a list of available channels each time they are activated,
32. The information collected from fixed unlicensed TV band devices will include:
(1) FCC Identifier (FCC ID) of the device;
(2) Manufacturer's serial number of the device;
(3) Device's coordinates (latitude and longitude);
(4) Name of the individual or business that owns the device;
(5) Name of a contact person responsible for the device's operation;
(6) Address of the contact person;
(7) E-mail address of the contact person;
(8) Phone number of the contact person.
33. The information collected from personal/portable unlicensed TV band devices, which will not be registered and only access the database for available channels, will include:
(1) FCC Identifier (FCC ID) of the device;
(2) Manufacturer's serial number of the device;
(3) Device's coordinates (latitude and longitude).
34. The FCC ID and serial number of the TV band device will uniquely identify individual fixed unlicensed TV band devices. This information will assist the Commission if compliance issues concerning devices arise. A fixed TV band device will be required to update any information that has changed when it makes its daily check with a TV bands database to determine if the list of available channels at its location has changed. If a fixed device does not check the database for three months, its registration will be removed from the database.
35. A database administrator will not be responsible for resolving claims of interference from TVBDs. If there is a claim of interference, a database administrator, upon request from the Commission, must provide TVBD identifying information. If a device is found to be causing interference, the Commission may then require that the party responsible for the unlicensed device take corrective actions or cease operating the device until the interference is resolved. In addition, if a representative of the Commission attempts and is unable to contact the person responsible for a device that is determined to be causing interference, the Commission may require the TV bands database to return a message of “no channels available” to the device at its next scheduled re-check. This will effectively shut down the device until contact is made with the responsible party so that the interference can be resolved. The database administrator
36. Now, regarding services that will be protected, a TV bands database will contain the following information on full-power television stations, digital and analog Class A stations, low-power television stations (LPTV), television translator stations, and television booster stations:
(1) Transmitter coordinates (latitude and longitude);
(2) Effective radiated power (ERP);
(3) Height above average terrain of the transmitter (HAAT);
(4) Horizontal transmit antenna pattern (if the antenna is directional);
(5) Channel number;
(6) Station call sign.
37. A TV bands database will also include information on Broadcast Auxiliary Service (BAS) facilities, which use vacant television channels for fixed point-to-point links. For permanent links, this information is available from the Commission's Universal Licensing System (ULS). For temporary BAS links, the party authorized to operate the link may voluntarily submit this information to a TV bands database. For each BAS link the TV bands database will contain:
(1) Transmitter coordinates (latitude and longitude);
(2) Receiver coordinates (latitude and longitude);
(3) Channel number;
(4) Call sign.
38. In some geographic regions, certain television channels from channel 14 through channel 20 are set aside for use by PLMRS and CMRS operations. These regions are specified in the Commissions rules. A TV bands database will contain the center coordinates (latitude and longitude) for each of these regions and the television channels used in each region. For each of these regions, a TV bands database will include the following data elements:
(1) Region name;
(2) Channel(s) reserved for use in the region;
(3) Geographic center of the region (latitude and longitude);
(4) Call sign.
39. In addition, numerous PLMRS and CMRS licenses have been granted in these channels outside of the identified geographic regions under waivers to the Commission's rules. These “waiver” licenses are specified in various ways such as, for example, by allowing a particular transmitted power and antenna height for a base station at a specified location or by specifying a geographic area of coverage, such as the boundaries of a local county administrative area. The database can be populated by information pertaining to facilities authorized by the Commission via an extract from the Wireless Telecommunication Bureau's ULS database. This database contains information on license holders, facility operation parameters (frequency, location, etc.), and any special conditions that apply. For each of these waiver licenses the following information will be placed into a TV bands database:
(1) Transmitter location (latitude and longitude) or geographic area of operations;
(2) Effective radiated power;
(3) Transmitter height above average terrain (if specified);
(4) Antenna height above ground level (if specified);
(5) Call sign.
40. The Offshore Radiotelephone Service uses channels 15-18 along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The Commission's rules designate four regions to protect this service. For each of the four regions a TV bands database will contain the following information:
(1) Geographic boundaries of the region (latitude and longitude for each point defining the boundary of the region;
(2) Channel(s) used by the service in that region.
41. As noted, cable television systems often use antennas at their headends to receive broadcast television signals and then retransmit those signals to subscriber households throughout the cable system. In many cases, cable systems are able to receive broadcast TV signals at locations outside a stations' protected service contour by using high gain antennas mounted on top of buildings or tall towers. Records identifying cable systems that receive TV stations outside of their service areas are not currently maintained in the Commission's databases. As indicated, the Commission is extending protection to the reception of TV signals by such cable headends. Therefore, we are allowing cable operators to register, with a TV bands database, their headends that receive TV signals outside of a station's protected contour and requiring that a TV bands database afford protection to those facilities in accordance with the provisions indicated. A TV bands database will collect the following information to register a cable headend:
(1) Name and address of cable company;
(2) Location of the headend receiver (latitude and longitude);
(3) Channel number of each television channel received, subject to the following condition: channels for which the cable headend is located within the protected contour of that channel's transmitting station are not eligible for registration in the database;
(4) Call sign of each television channel received and eligible for registration;
(5) Location (latitude and longitude) of the transmitter of each television channel received.
42. Television translator and low power stations, including Class A TV stations, rebroadcast the signal of a full service station or another low power station. Like many cable headends, TV translators/low power stations often receive the signal of the station they retransmit outside the retransmitted station's protected contour. The TV translators and low power stations that currently receive the signal they retransmit off-the-air at locations beyond the originating station's protected service contour are not currently recorded in the Commission's databases. To protect the reception of signals at the receive sites of these stations, the Commission will allow the licensees of such translators and low power stations to register their receive sites with a TV bands database and require the database to afford those sites protection in the same manner as similarly situated cable headends. A TV bands database will collect the following information to register a translator/low power receive site:
(1) Call sign of the TV translator or low power TV station;
(2) Location of the TV translator or low power station receive site (latitude and longitude);
(3) Channel number of the retransmitted television station, subject to the following condition: a channel for which the television translator receive site is located within the protected contour of that channel's transmitting
(4) Call sign of the retransmitted television station;
(5) Location (latitude and longitude) of the transmitter of the retransmitted television station.
43. As discussed, low power auxiliary stations such as wireless microphones and wireless assist video devices operate in the television bands on a secondary basis under part 74 of the Commission's rules. These devices are usually licensed to operate over a broad geographic area and a wide range of television channels. The use of these devices is sometimes sporadic and nomadic and registration of the locations of such operations' locations in a TV bands database would not be practical. However, in many cases wireless microphones and wireless assist video devices are used regularly and predictably, such as at major sporting events facilities, movie studio lots, and television studios. For these situations, the low power auxiliary device users will be allowed to register in a TV bands database, the location where the devices are used to aid in avoiding interference from TV band devices. In the case of large event facilities such as race tracks and golf courses, the Commission will allow multiple registrations with different geographic coordinates to enable protection of the entire site. The Commission will require that requests for registration of low power auxiliary devices that operate on a seasonal basis, only on certain days within a week or only at specific times include such information; TVBDs will be restricted from operation in the channels used at registered sites only on days and at times when low power auxiliary devices at the sites are in operation. Low power auxiliary registrations will be valid for no longer than a year, after which they may be renewed. The database will collect the following information on registered sites that use low power auxiliary devices:
(1) Name of the individual or business that owns the low power auxiliary device(s);
(2) The name of a contact person;
(3) An address for the contact person;
(4) An e-mail address for the contact person (optional);
(5) A phone number for the contact person (optional);
(6) Coordinates where the device(s) are used (latitude and longitude);
(7) Channels used by the low power auxiliary devices operated at the site;
(8) Specific months, days and times when the device(s) are used.
45. If the Commission chooses multiple entities to administer TV bands databases, it must ensure that each database contains consistent information so that regardless of which database a TVBD queries, it receives the same list of available channels in an area. Because a TVBD will only be required to contact a single TV bands database, there is a need for the TV bands databases to share accurate and timely registration information so that each database has a timely view of the radio environment and can make the best channel availability determinations possible. Therefore, the Commission will require that each TV bands database, at a minimum on a daily basis, provide to each other TV bands database, all registration information it receives during the previous day. This data sharing requirement extends only to registrations of fixed devices and protected facilities that are not otherwise captured in Commission databases, including wireless microphone and wireless assist video device locations, cable headends, and TV translator/low power receive sites. The databases can obtain information on other services, such as full service TV, land mobile licenses, etc. directly from Commission databases. The Commission believes that this sharing requirement is extremely important to the success of TVBDs as it decreases the burden on any one database and also fosters cooperation between the various database administrators. Although, the Commission is requiring the TV bands databases to share information daily, it will leave the actual implementation details up to the database administrators. Once the specific entities are selected, they will need to agree on a specific protocol and data format requirement so that manufacturers can build standard devices that can work with any of the databases and each database can easily transmit and receive data from each other database. In addition, the database administrators may agree whether to share on a more frequent timeframe than daily.
46. A TV bands database will obtain much of the information on licensed use of the television bands for populating the database from the existing Commission databases. The TV bands database will be required to synchronize itself with the existing Commission databases at least once a week so that the information in the TV bands database remains current. Entities operating facilities that are entitled to protection but that are not licensed by the Commission,
47. The Commission recognizes that there is potential for inaccurate
48. Part 15 of the Commission's rules is amended as specified in Appendix B of the Order, and such rule amendments shall be effective March 19, 2009, except for §§ 15.713, 15.714, 15.715 and 15.717, which contain information collection requirements that have not been approved by the Office of Management and Budget. The Federal Communications Commission will publish a document in the
49. Pursuant to Sections 4(i), 302, 303(e), 303(f), 303(g), 303(r) and 405 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(i), 302, 303(e), 303(f), 303(g), 303(r) and 405, the petition for reconsideration filed by the New America Foundation and the Champaign Urbana Wireless Network
50. Pursuant to Sections 4(i), 302, 303(e), 303(f), 303(g), and 303(r) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 154(i), 302, 303(e), 303(f), 303(g) and 303(r), the Emergency Request filed by The Association For Maximum Service Television, Inc., The National Association of Broadcasters, The ABC, NBC, CBS, and FOX Television Networks, and The Open Mobile Video Coalition
51. The Commission's Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Reference Information Center,
52. As required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA),
53. The Second Report and Order allows low power unlicensed transmitters to operate in the TV broadcast bands at locations where spectrum is not being used by authorized services. The new rules provide for operation of two types of unlicensed devices that may provide broadband data and other types of communications services: (1) fixed devices, which will operate from a fixed location with relatively higher power and could be used to provide a variety of services including wireless broadband access in urban and rural areas, and (2) personal/portable devices, which will use lower power and could, for example, take the form of devices such as Wi-Fi-like cards in laptop computers or wireless in-home local area networks (LANs). In order to operate without causing interference to licensed services, both types of devices will be required to be able to reliably determine which channels are occupied by licensed operations at their location at any given time and to avoid interfering with services on those channels. The specific compliance requirements are described in Section D of this RFA.
54. The actions in this Second Report and Order will open for use a significant amount of spectrum with very desirable propagation characteristics that has heretofore lain fallow. These new rules will allow the development of n