Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
Section 4(b)(3)(B) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531
On July 14, 2008, we received a petition dated July 10, 2008, from Dr. D. Bruce Means, Ryan C. Means, and Rebecca P.M. Means of the Coastal Plains Institute and Land Conservancy (CPI), requesting that the striped newt (
Funding became available to begin processing the petition in early 2010. On March 23, 2010, we published a 90-day finding (75 FR 13720) that the petition presented substantial information indicating that listing the striped newt may be warranted and that we were initiating a status review, for which we would accept public comments until May 24, 2010. This
Our 90-day finding summarized much of the current literature regarding the striped newt's distribution, habitat requirements, and life history, and may be reviewed for detailed information (75 FR 13720, March 23, 2010). Below, we briefly summarize previously presented information, and provide new information that we believe is relevant to understanding our analysis of the factors affecting the striped newt.
There are three species of
Another genetic study, conducted in 2010, looked at whether populations of
Life-history stages of the striped newt are complex, and include the use of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats throughout their life cycle. Striped newts are opportunistic feeders that prey on frog eggs, worms, snails, fairy shrimp, spiders, and insects (adult and larvae) that are of appropriate size (Dodd
Aquatic and breeding adults occur in isolated, temporary ponds associated with well-drained sands. Sexually mature adults migrate to these breeding ponds, which lack predatory fish, and courtship, copulation, and egg-laying take place there. Females lay eggs one at a time and attach them to aquatic vegetation or other objects in the water. It may take one female several months to lay all of her eggs (Johnson 2005, p. 94). Eggs hatch and develop into externally-gilled larvae in the temporary pond environment.
Once larvae reach a size suitable for metamorphosis, they may either undergo metamorphosis and exit the pond as immature, terrestrial efts, or remain in the pond and eventually mature into gilled, aquatic adults (paedomorphs) (Petranka 1998, pp. 449-450; Johnson 2005, p. 94). The immature, terrestrial efts migrate into the uplands where they mature into terrestrial adults. Efts will remain in the uplands until conditions are appropriate (adequate rainfall) to return to the ponds to reproduce. Johnson (2005, p. 94) found that 25 percent of larvae became paedomorphs at his study pond. Paedomorphs will postpone metamorphosis until after they have matured and reproduced. At about a year old, they will reproduce, metamorphose, and migrate into the uplands adjacent to the pond (Johnson 2005, pp. 94-95). Once there are proper conditions (
Striped newts as well as other
Movement of striped newts by both emigration and immigration occurs between ponds and surrounding uplands. Adult newts immigrate into ponds from uplands during the fall and winter months, but some newts also immigrate during the spring and summer months as well, when environmental conditions (
Suitability of upland habitat around breeding ponds influences the pattern of immigration and emigration of newts and directional movements (Dodd 1996, p. 46; Dodd and Cade 1998, p. 337; Johnson 2003, p. 16). Dodd and Cade (1998, p. 337) found that striped newts migrated in a direction that favored high pine sandhill habitats. Newts migrate into terrestrial habitats at significant distances from their breeding ponds. Dodd (1996, p. 46) found that 82.9 percent of 12 wetland breeding amphibians (including striped newts) were captured 600 meters (m) (1,969 feet (ft)) from the nearest wetland, and only 28 percent of amphibians were captured less than 400 m (1,300 ft) from the wetland. Johnson (2003, p. 18) found that 16 percent of striped newts in his study migrated more than 500 m (1, 600 ft) from ponds. Dodd and Cade (1998, p. 337) showed that striped newts travelled up to 709 m (2,330 ft) from ponds. These long-distance movements of striped newts from breeding ponds to terrestrial habitats suggest that buffer zones around ponds should be established to protect upland habitats, as well as breeding ponds (Dodd 1996, p. 49; Dodd and Cade 1998, p. 337, Johnson 2003, p. 19; Kirkman
Optimal pond hydrology is important for maintaining the complex life-history pathways of striped newts. If there is not enough water in ephemeral ponds, then larvae will not have enough time to reach the minimum size needed for metamorphosis and will die as ponds dry up (Johnson 2002, p. 398). However, permanent ponds could support predatory fish that feed on aquatic-breeding amphibians (Johnson 2005, p. 94; Moler and Franz 1987, p. 235). Variable hydroperiods in breeding ponds over a long time period could result in varying reproductive success. Dodd (1993, p. 610) found a decline in striped newts due to persistent drought conditions. Johnson (2002, p. 399) found that heavy rainfall in the winter of 1997 to spring of 1998 filled ponds to their maximum depth and contributed to the reproductive success at these ponds. At one breeding pond, a minimum hydro-period of 139 days (Dodd 1993, pp. 609-610) was needed for larvae to reach complete metamorphosis. Larvae undergo metamorphosis into efts after a period of 6 months, and in order for larvae to mature into paedomorphs, a breeding pond must hold water for at least a year (Johnson 2005, p. 94). For a paedormorph to successfully reproduce, ponds must hold water for an additional 6 months to allow sufficient time for its larvae to undergo metamorphosis.
Striped newts form metapopulations that persist in isolated fragments of longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystems (Johnson 2001, p. 114; Johnson 2005, p. 95). Within metapopulations, ponds function as focal points for local breeding populations that experience periods of extirpation and recolonization through time (
Ephemeral ponds are important components of upland habitat in the southeastern United States (LaClaire and Franz 1990, p. 9). Ephemeral ponds tend to be described as small (typically less than 5 hectares (ha) (12.4 acres (ac)), isolated wetlands with a cyclic nature of drying and refilling known as hydroperiods. Ephemeral ponds can hold water at various times throughout a year to allow for reproduction. Precipitation is the most important water source for ephemeral ponds (LaClaire and Franz 1990, p. 12). The cyclical nature of ephemeral ponds prevents predatory fish from inhabiting breeding ponds (Dodd and Charest 1988, pp. 87, 94; LaClaire and Franz 1990, p. 12; Moler and Franz 1987, p. 237). Ephemeral ponds are biologically unique, because they support diverse species that are different than species found in larger, more permanent wetlands or ponds (Moler and Franz 1987, pp. 234, 236; Kirkman
The frequency and duration of water in ephemeral ponds creates different zones of vegetation within ponds. One species, maidencane (
Ephemeral ponds are surrounded by upland habitats of high pine, scrubby flatwoods, and scrub (Christman and Means, 1992, p. 62). Longleaf pine-turkey oak stands with intact ground cover containing wiregrass (
Striped newt habitat is fire-dependent, and naturally ignited fires and prescribed burning maintain an open canopy and reduce forest floor litter. An open canopy provides sunlight necessary for ground cover growth needed by newts for foraging and sheltering. Fire is also an important factor for wetland vegetation (LaClaire and Franz 1990, p. 10; Means 2008, p. 4). Historically, fire would be naturally ignited in the uplands during the late spring and early summer, and would sweep through the dry pond basins, reducing organic matter and killing encroaching upland plant species (Means 2008, p. 4; Myer 1990, p. 189). Lack of fire in uplands that buffer breeding ponds allows fire-intolerant hardwoods to shade out herbaceous understory needed by striped newts for foraging and sheltering. As a result, fire shadows may form along the upslope wetland and upland boundary. The vegetation in this area contains fire-intolerant evergreen shrubs (
Striped newts use upland habitats that surround breeding ponds to complete their life cycle. Efts move from ponds to uplands where they mature into terrestrial adults. The uplands also provide habitat for the striped newt to forage and burrow during the non-breeding season (Dodd and Charest 1988, p. 95). Striped newts also use uplands to access alternative ponds that are needed if the original breeding pond is destroyed or the hydroperiod is altered (Means 2006, p. 197). This shows the interdependence between upland and aquatic habitats in the persistence of populations (Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219). Semi-aquatic species (such as the striped newt) depend on both aquatic and upland habitats for various parts of their life cycle in order to maintain viable populations (Dodd and Cade 1998, pp. 336-337; Johnson 2001, p. 47; Semlitsch 1998, p. 1116; Semlitsch and Bodie 2003, p. 1219).
The range of the striped newt extends from the Atlantic Coastal Plain of southeastern Georgia to the north-central peninsula of Florida and through the Florida panhandle into portions of southwest Georgia (Dodd
In Figure 1, we provide a map illustrating the current and historical ranges of the striped newt on public lands. The dark-shaded areas represent the currently occupied sites documented from 2005 to 2010 surveys of public lands (Enge, FWC, personal communication, 2010; Jensen, Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR), personal communication, 2010). The light-shaded areas represent the historical range where striped newts are now extirpated. There are from 1 to 30 breeding ponds documented within dark shaded areas. However, due to the scale of the map, the specific ponds are not identified. This map represents the best available information used to establish the species' range.
To determine where there may be additional unsurveyed suitable habitat for striped newts in Florida, Endries
The GIS analysis found a total of 244,576 ha (604,360 ac) of potential habitat (Endries
Within the panhandle of Florida, striped newts have been found within the Munson Sandhills. This site represents a small physiographic region within the Gulf Coastal Plains in Florida (Means and Means 1998a, p. 3). Striped newts have only been located in the western portion of the Munson Sandhills within the ANF. No newts have been found in the eastern portion of the sandhills since the 1980s, when the area was converted to a dense sand pine (
The striped newt is currently known to occur in five separate locations in Georgia, including Fort Stewart, Lentile Property, Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center (JJERC), Fall Line Sandhills Natural Area, and Ohoopee Dunes Natural Area (J. Jensen, GDNR, personal communication, September 14, 2010; L. Smith, JJERC, personal communication, September 11, 2010; Stevenson 2000, p. 4; Stevenson and Cash 2008, p. 252; Stevenson
Surveys have been conducted for striped newts at many sites within Florida and Georgia. These surveys have found that the number of known occupied sites has declined and occupied sites are limited to just a few counties. However, historical information on the location of striped newts is difficult to confirm, as most of these sites underwent substantial land use changes since newts were first collected (Dodd
Franz and Smith (1999, p. 8) reviewed 100 records from 20 counties in Florida between 1922 and 1995, and conducted surveys between 1989 and 1995. They found that 4 historical ponds had newts, but also found 34 new ponds containing newts were that were not part of the historical records. All 38 breeding ponds were found on 7 public lands that included ANF, Camp Blanding Military Reservation, Favor-Dykes State Park, Jennings State Forest, Katharine Ordway Preserve-Swisher Memorial Sanctuary, ONF, and Rock Springs State Preserve (Franz and Smith, 1999, pp. 8-9).
Johnson and Owen (2005, p. 7) visited 51 sites in 11 counties in Florida from 2000 to 2003 that overlapped with the sites visited by Franz and Smith. They found that of 51 sites visited (totaling 64 ponds), only 26 ponds and adjacent upland habitat had excellent habitat quality (
From 2005 to 2010, Enge (FWC, personal communication, 2010) surveyed ponds in suitable habitat on 32 conservation lands in Florida. He found breeding ponds with newts in 58 ponds on 11 of the 32 conservation lands. He also found that although newts had a wider range in Florida than Georgia, they remained abundant only on public lands in Clay, Marion, and Putnam Counties. This is consistent with the surveys conducted by Franz and Smith (1999, pp. 8-9) and Johnson and Owen (2005, p. 7). He found that there were a total of 49 extant populations known from the peninsula of Florida and 7 populations from the panhandle. An isolated breeding pond farther than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) from the closest other breeding pond represents a separate population (Enge, FWC, personal communication, 2010). The striped newt metapopulations (
The status of the striped newt is unknown on private lands due to the difficulty in accessing these lands; however, Enge (FWC, personal communication, 2010) was able to survey 8 ponds on 2 private lands, and found newts on at least one site.
Striped newt breeding ponds at ANF and other areas within the Munson Sandhills region in Leon County, Florida, have seen a decline. ANF was once considered a metapopulation for striped newt (Johnson 2005, p. 95; Johnson and Owen 2005, p. 7; Enge, FWC, personal communication, 2010). However, the western Munson Sandhills in ANF was surveyed from 1995-2007, and researchers were only able to locate 18 breeding ponds (containing larvae or breeding adults) in 265 ephemeral ponds surveyed (Means and Means 1998a, p. 5). Means
As mentioned above, striped newts have only been found at five locations in Georgia, and these sites are highly fragmented and isolated (Stevenson 2000, p. 4). An amphibian survey on 196 ephemeral ponds in 17 counties on timber company lands in the Coastal Plain of southeastern Georgia did not locate any striped newts in Georgia; however, striped newts were found in four ponds in Florida (Wigley 1999, pp. 5-10). Stevenson (2000, p. 3) looked at 25 historic striped newt localities in Georgia and was only able to find 2 sites (8 percent) that had multiple breeding ponds and upland habitat that would support striped newt populations. As of 2010, only 2 properties in the State are known to support viable populations: JJERC and Fort Stewart Army Base (Jensen, GDNR, personal communication, 2010; Stevenson
Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and its implementing regulations (50 CFR 424) set forth procedures for adding species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Under section 4(a)(1) of the Act, a species may be determined to be endangered or threatened based on any of the following five factors:
(A) The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range;
(B) Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes;
(C) Disease or predation;
(D) The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; or
(E) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence.
In making this finding, information pertaining to the striped newt in relation to the five factors provided in section 4(a)(1) of the Act is discussed below.
In considering whether a species may warrant listing under any of the five factors, we look beyond the species' exposure to a potential threat or aggregation of threats under any of the factors, and evaluate whether the species responds to those potential threats in a way that causes actual impact to the species. The identification of threats that might impact a species negatively may not be sufficient to compel a finding that the species warrants listing. The information must include evidence indicating that the threats are operative and, either singly or in aggregation, affect the status of the species. Threats are significant if they drive, or contribute to, the risk of extinction of the species, such that the species warrants listing as endangered or threatened, as those terms are defined in the Act.
Striped newts have been found to use both aquatic and upland habitats throughout their life cycle. Most of these habitats have been destroyed or modified in the past due to: (1) Conversion of habitat to intensely managed, planted pine plantations or naturally regenerated stands (Dodd 1995b, p. 129; Wear and Greis 2002, p. 46); (2) loss of habitat resulting from urban development (Zwick and Carr 2006, pp. 4-6); (3) degradation of habitat due to fire suppression (Means 2008, pp. 27-28); and (4) degradation of the habitat by the use of off-road vehicles and road construction (Means 1996, p. 2; Means 2001; p. 31, Means 2003 p. 6; Means
Natural pine forests (
Habitat loss from the conversion of natural pine forests to intensely managed, planted pine plantations has greatly disrupted the dispersal of striped newts between breeding ponds and upland habitat. Means and Means (1998a, p. 6) found that striped newt habitat at the Munson Sandhills varied due to differences in silvicultural practice between the eastern and western portions of the Sandhills. In the western portion of the Sandhills found within ANF, native groundcover remains in the second-growth longleaf pine forests, where striped newts spend most of their adult life. However, the eastern portion of the Munson Sandhills has been clear-cut and roller-chopped, and planted in sand pine (
Silvicultural practices, including mechanical site preparation, pond ditching, soil disturbance, and the use of fertilizer and herbicides, can interfere with migration and successful reproduction (Dodd 1995b, p. 130; Dodd and LaClaire 1995, pp. 43-44; Means and Means 2005, pp. 59-60; Means 2008, p. 29). Pond ditching, which is used to drain ponds to create ideal conditions for silvicultural operations, is detrimental to striped newts, because it alters pond hydrology and facilitates predatory fish movement into otherwise fishless ponds (Means 2008, p. 30). Ditching creates a shortened hydroperiod, reducing the amount of time striped newts have to undergo metamorphosis, which can eventually decrease the number of reproducing adults (Means 2008, p. 31).
Alteration of upland habitat to urban development can create habitat fragmentation and loss of metapopulations of striped newts. In 10 coastal Georgia counties, the human population is expected to increase 51 percent by 2030 (Center for Quality Growth and Regional Development 2006, p. 4), but no estimate of impact on native habitats was provided. Striped newts have been found within 5 of these counties in Georgia, including Bryan, Camden, Long, Liberty, and Screven Counties (Franz and Smith 1999, p. 13, Stevenson 2000, pp. 6-7). Zwick and Carr (2006, pp. 4-6) modeled human population growth in Florida, and concluded that 2.8 million ha (7 million ac) of land will be converted to urban use by 2060. Of the 2.8 million ha (7 million ac), they estimated that about 1.1 million ha (2.7 million ac) of native habitat would be destroyed to accommodate urban development (Zwick and Carr 2006, p. 2). It is predicted that more than 800,000 ha (2 million ac) of native habitat in Florida will be developed by 2060 within a mile of public conservation lands (Zwick and Carr 2006, p. 19; FWC 2008, p. 8). Urban sprawl where newts occur will fragment striped newt ponds from upland habitats. This will limit movement of newts between breeding ponds and make them more vulnerable to extinction, as the genetic viability of the newts declines (FWC 2008, p. 8). Powerlines and natural gas rights-of-ways impact groundcover associated with longleaf pine adjacent to breeding ponds, creating barriers to dispersal and eventually decreasing populations (Means 2001, pp. 31-32). Striped newt habitat in the Tallahassee Red Hills has been impacted by urban sprawl and land conversion from 1824 to the
Small, isolated wetlands support breeding populations of striped newts. However, small, ephemeral wetlands (less than 0.2 ha (0.5 ac)) receive no protection from development (Johnson 2003, p. 19; Dodd and Cade 1998, p. 337; see discussion under Factor D below). The loss of these small, ephemeral wetlands can potentially increase extinction rates of newts by limiting migration between ponds and corridors, thus decreasing recolonization of local populations (Gibbs 1993, pp. 25-26; LaClaire and Franz 1990, p. 13; Semlitsch and Bodie 1998, pp. 1131-1132). Green (2003, p. 341) concluded that pond-breeding amphibians, like striped newts, that have highly fluctuating populations and high frequencies of local extinctions are likely to be affected rapidly by habitat fragmentation. The loss of breeding ponds due to habitat destruction will reduce corridors and limit migration between the ponds and the uplands.
Prescribed fire plays an important role in maintaining productive breeding ponds for striped newts (Kirkman
In Florida, some public land managers do not currently have the resources to implement effective habitat management programs (Howell
Striped newts dispersing from breeding ponds to upland habitat are also impacted by roads and highways. These impacts usually result in direct road mortality; desiccation of small, moist-bodied animals (like newts) on dry asphalt; and increased exposure of these small animals to aerial predation (Means 1996, p. 2). At one study pond in ANF, Means (2003, p. 6) found that most striped newts were emigrating and immigrating to and from the breeding pond across a major highway, U.S. 319.
We have identified a number of threats to striped newt habitat that have resulted in the destruction and modification of habitat in the past, are continuing to threaten habitat now, and are expected to continue to threaten striped newt habitat in the future. Indications are that the loss of habitat due to conversion of natural pine forests to more intense silvicultural management regimes will continue in interior portions of the range of the striped newt. Striped newt habitat within the species' range in Florida and Georgia is currently threatened with habitat loss and modification resulting from urban development. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urban development and road construction is expected to continue in the future. Lack of, or inappropriate use of, prescribed fire is ongoing and likely to continue in the future, and has adverse effects on striped newt habitat and extant populations. On the basis of this analysis, we find that the destruction, modification, or curtailment of the striped newt's habitat is currently a threat and is expected to persist and possibly escalate in the future. Because this threat is ongoing and we expect it will continue over the coming decades; we consider the threat to be imminent. However, based on the large amount of potential habitat that is currently in public ownership, and fact that most of the known striped newt ponds are on conservation lands, we believe the magnitude of this threat is moderate. Based upon our review of the best commercial and scientific data available, we conclude that the present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range is an imminent threat of moderate magnitude to the striped newt, both now and in the foreseeable future.
The petition provided information that striped newts were collected and sold during the 1970s and 1980s. However, in our 90-day finding (75 FR 13720, March 23, 2010), we determined that there was no evidence to support the existence of any threat under this factor. We obtained no additional information during the status review to indicate that this factor is currently a threat to the species or will become a threat in the foreseeable future. Therefore, based on our review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we conclude that the striped newt is not threatened by
In our 90-day finding (75 FR 13720, March 23, 2010), we found no evidence that predation was a threat to the striped newt, and we obtained no additional information during the status review that would change that finding. As to disease, below we summarize what was previously stated in the 90-day finding (75 FR 13720, March 23, 2010), as well as additional information obtained during the status review.
Disease can be difficult to detect in pond-breeding amphibians. In addition, the rarity of striped newts increases the difficulty of documenting mortality in the species. However, there are reasons to believe that disease may be a possible factor in the decline of striped newts. Chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by
Some researchers believe that disease pathogens represent one of the potential causes of decline of the striped newt (Blaustein and Johnson 2003, pp. 87-92). The presence of chytrid fungal infections could particularly threaten populations of striped newts, as they may not have the resiliency to recover after a population crash caused by this disease (Ouellet
A group of viruses belonging to the genus
Another recently described disease, caused by a fungus-like protist (
We have found that several of the diseases mentioned above have resulted in mortality of species similar to the striped newt, such as the eastern newt (which is in the same genus as the striped newt). Drought conditions are predicted to be more severe and longer in the coming years. As drought (see discussion under Factor E below) and loss of habitat (see discussion under Factor A above) continue to act as stressors, striped newt populations may become more susceptible to disease outbreaks, which could potentially result in some localized population extinctions, as has occurred with similar species. Because, from the best available information, we do not know if disease is currently affecting the striped newt populations, but we believe it is likely that it will in the coming decades, we consider this threat to be nonimminent. Since disease has resulted in loss to similar amphibian species, and additional stressors (
There is currently little Federal and State protection of isolated wetland habitat and surrounding upland habitats. While many States in the southeastern United States regulate those activities affecting wetlands that are exempt from section 404 of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) (33 U.S.C.1251
The CWA regulates the dredge and fill activities that adversely affect wetlands. Section 404 of CWA regulates the discharge of dredge or fill materials into wetlands. Discharges are commonly associated with projects to create dry land for development sites, water-control projects, and land clearing. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) share the responsibility for implementing the permitting program under section 404 of the CWA. EPA and COE provided a guidance memorandum for implementing recent court cases addressing jurisdiction over waters of the United States under the CWA, specifically addressing the term “navigable waters” (EPA and COE 2001, pp. 1-7; EPA and COE 2008, pp. 1-13). It is clear from this guidance that isolated wetlands are not considered
The Department of the Interior, through the Service, administers the National Wildlife Refuge System. The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (NWRAA; 16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee) provides legislation for the administration of a national network of lands and water for the conservation, management, and restoration of fish, wildlife, and plant resources and their habitats for the benefit of the American people. Amendment of the NWRAA in 1997 requires the refuge system to ensure that the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of refuges be maintained and requires development and implementation of a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for each refuge. The CCP must identify and describe the wildlife and related habitats in the refuge and actions needed to correct significant problems that may adversely affect wildlife populations and habitat (16 U.S.C. 668dd(e)). Striped newt habitat within national wildlife refuges is protected from loss due to urban development. Striped newts have historically been observed at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (SMNWR) in Florida and Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) in Georgia. Striped newts were historically found at ONWR in the 1920s, but the only known breeding pond was last occupied by newts in 1994. Aicher (ONWR, personal communication, September 14, 2010) has not found striped newts at ONWR, even though this breeding pond is still in good condition with well-maintained uplands surrounding it. At SMNWR, surveys conducted in 2002-2005 and again in 2009 were not able to locate any newts at 34 ponds (Enge, FWC, personal communication, 2010; Dodd
On military installations, the Department of Defense (DOD) must conserve and maintain native ecosystems, viable wildlife populations, Federal and State listed species, and habitats as vital elements of its natural resource management programs, to the extent these requirements are consistent with the military mission (DOD Instruction 4715.3). Amendments to the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670
The effectiveness of individual INRMPs to protect striped newts vary between and within military departments. Because the striped newt is not a protected species in Florida, the INRMP for Camp Blanding Military Installation does not specifically address management programs for this species. However, management activities that benefit the red-cockaded woodpecker and gopher tortoise,
The Navy does incorporate protective ecosystem management into INRMPs for Naval Air Station Jacksonville (and associated Rodman Bombing Range, Pinecastle Range, and Outlying Landing Field Whitehouse), Naval Station Mayport, and Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay. However, the INRMPs do not include specific management measures for the striped newt.
The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (16 U.S.C. 36),of 1974, as amended by the National Forest Management Act of 1976 (16 U.S.C. 1600
Generally, State statutes and regulations protect striped newts from take, but the effectiveness and implementation of regulations vary between States. The striped newt is not currently a State-listed species in Florida. However, the ephemeral ponds in Florida have some protection under Florida State regulations. The five Water Management Districts (WMDs) and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) regulate wetland protection. The WMDs include isolated wetlands in the Environmental Resource Permit process, which requires a permit for any activities that would impact a wetland (SJRWMD 2010, p. 1). Under the WMDs permitting process, mitigation for impacts to wetlands below a minimum permitting threshold size of 0.2 ha (0.5 ac) is not addressed unless the wetland supports an endangered or threatened species, is connected by standing or flowing surface water at seasonal high water level to one or more wetlands that total
The size of the wetland is primarily how the State of Florida and the COE address wetland regulations. Snodgrass