Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
For more information on the Agency's process for administering the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to the original SNAP rulemaking published in the
This action presents EPA's most recent acceptable listing decisions for substitutes in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam blowing, solvent cleaning, aerosols and fire suppression sectors. For copies of the full list of acceptable substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in all industrial sectors, visit EPA's Ozone Layer Protection Web site at
The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. Appendix A contains tables summarizing today's listing decisions for these new acceptable substitutes. The statements in the “Further Information” column in the tables provide additional information, but are not legally binding under section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In addition, the “further information” may not be a comprehensive list of other legal obligations you may need to meet when using the substitute. Although you are not required to follow recommendations in the “further information” column of the table to use a substitute consistent with section 612 of the CAA, EPA strongly encourages you to apply the information when using these substitutes. In many instances, the information simply refers to standard operating practices in existing industry and/or building-code standards. However, some of these statements may refer to obligations that are enforceable or binding under federal or state programs other than the SNAP program. Many of these recommendations, if adopted, would not require significant changes to existing operating practices.
You can find submissions to EPA for the use of the substitutes listed in this document and other materials supporting the decisions in this action in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 at
C7 Fluoroketone is marketed under the trade name Novec
EPA anticipates that C7 Fluoroketone
EPA anticipates that Solstice
Carbon dioxide is also known as CO
EPA's regulations codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F exempt CO
EPA's decision: EPA finds hydrofluoroolefin
• CFC-12, R-500, HCFC-22 and blends containing HCFC-22 and/or HCFC-142b for use in new equipment in reciprocating, screw and scroll chillers
• CFC-11 and HCFC-123 for use in new equipment in centrifugal chillers
HFO-1234ze is also known as HFC-1234ze, HFO-1234ze(E) or
EPA anticipates that HFO-1234ze will be used consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) recommends a workplace environmental exposure limit (WEEL) of 800 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFO-1234ze. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the workplace exposure limit (WEEL) and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
• Rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock
• Rigid polyurethane appliance
• Rigid polyurethane spray, commercial refrigeration and sandwich panels
• Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other
• Integral skin polyurethane
EPA anticipates that Solstice
• Polystyrene extruded boardstock & billet
• Polystyrene extruded sheet
• Rigid polyurethane appliance foam
• Rigid polyurethane commercial refrigeration and sandwich panels
• Integral skin polyurethane
• Rigid polyurethane slabstock and other
Formacel® Z-6 is a series of blends with different percentage contents of the same compounds. The submitter has claimed its composition as confidential business information (CBI). You may find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0284 at
HFE-347pcf2 is also known as 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 406-78-0). It is marketed under the trade name AE-3000. You may find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0280 at
An assessment was performed to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, “Risk Screen on Substitutes CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, and HCFC-141b in Aerosol Solvent, Electronics Cleaning, and Precision Cleaning Substitute: HFE-347pcf2.” Based on this analysis, EPA anticipates that users will be able to use HFE-347pcf2 in electronics and precision cleaning without appreciable health risks. EPA anticipates that HFE-347pcf2 will be used consistent with the recommendations specified in the MSDS. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA). EPA recommends a ceiling limit
EPA's decision: EPA finds HFE-347pcf2 acceptable as a substitute for CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof for use as an aerosol solvent.
HFE-347pcf2 is also known as 2,2,2-Trifluoroethoxy-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 406-78-0). It is marketed under the trade name AE-3000. You may find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0280 at
EPA anticipates that HFE-347pcf2 will be used consistent with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA). EPA recommends a ceiling limit of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2.
An assessment was performed to examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the name, “Risk Screen on Substitutes CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, and HCFC-141b in Aerosol Solvent, Electronics Cleaning, and Precision Cleaning Substitute: HFE-347pcf2.” Based on this analysis, we recommend using this compound as an aerosol solvent with adequate ventilation and following good industrial hygiene practice due to the potential neurotoxic effects of this substitute at high acute (short-term) concentrations. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the workplace exposure limits (manufacturer and EPA recommendations) and address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common during use of aerosol solvents.
EPA anticipates that Solstice
Cold Fire® is a liquid fire suppression agent. The manufacturer of Cold Fire® has claimed its composition as CBI. You may find the redacted submission under Docket item EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118-0288 at
Cold Fire® is expected to aerosolize rapidly during expulsion from the fire suppression system and then settle as a liquid on surfaces in the space being protected, rather than becoming airborne and moving to surface waters. After settling, cleanup would involve washing or rinsing of surfaces.
Cold Fire® is not biodegradable. During cleanup, we recommend that discharges of Cold Fire® be collected (e.g., mopped) and sealed in containers and then disposed of in accordance with local, state, and federal requirements and as specified in the manufacturer's MSDS. EPA recommends that discharges of Cold Fire® not be released to waterways. The MSDS also specifies that training for safe handling procedures be provided to all employees that would be likely to dispose of Cold Fire® at cleanup. EPA anticipates that users will be able to avoid potential risks to water and aquatic life by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS.
• Proper Level C or higher personal protective equipment (PPE) be used during handling of the substitute (e.g., goggles, gloves);
• adequate ventilation should be in place;
• all spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good industrial hygiene practices;
• after spill and cleanup, dispose of material(s) contaminated with Cold Fire® in accordance with local, state and federal laws;
• training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all employees that would be likely to handle containers of Cold Fire®; and
• in case of an inadvertent discharge, workers should immediately follow the instructions listed in the MSDS for Cold Fire®.
The above recommendations are all included in the manufacturer's MSDS. EPA anticipates that users will be able to address potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in the MSDS and other safety precautions common during use of fire suppressants in industry.
Section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to develop a program for evaluating alternatives to ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). EPA refers to this program as the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. The major provisions of section 612 are:
Section 612(c) requires EPA to promulgate rules making it unlawful to replace any class I substance (chlorofluorocarbon, halon, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and hydrobromofluorocarbon) or class II substance (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human health or the environment where the Administrator has identified an alternative that (1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently or potentially available.
Section 612(c) requires EPA to publish a list of the substitutes unacceptable for specific uses and to publish a corresponding list of acceptable alternatives for specific uses. The list of acceptable substitutes may be found at
Section 612(d) grants the right to any person to petition EPA to add a substance to, or delete a substance from, the lists published in accordance with section 612(c). The Agency has 90 days to grant or deny a petition. Where the Agency grants the petition, EPA must publish the revised lists within an additional six months.
Section 612(e) directs EPA to require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance to notify the Agency not less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. The producer must also provide the Agency with the producer's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitutes.
Section 612(b)(1) states that the Administrator shall seek to maximize the use of federal research facilities and resources to assist users of class I and II substances in identifying and developing alternatives to the use of such substances in key commercial applications.
Section 612(b)(4) requires the Agency to set up a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and II substances.
On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 13044) which established the process for administering the SNAP program and issued EPA's first lists identifying acceptable and unacceptable substitutes in the major industrial use sectors (subpart G of 40 CFR part 82). These sectors—refrigeration and air conditioning; foam blowing; cleaning solvents; fire suppression and explosion protection; sterilants; aerosols; adhesives, coatings and inks; and tobacco expansion—are the principal industrial sectors that historically consumed the largest volumes of ODS.
Section 612 of the CAA requires EPA to list as acceptable those substitutes that do not present a significantly greater risk to human health and the environment as compared with other substitutes that are currently or potentially available.
Under the SNAP regulations, anyone who plans to market or produce a substitute to replace a class I substance or class II substance in one of the eight major industrial use sectors must provide notice to the Agency, including health and safety information on the substitute, at least 90 days before introducing it into interstate commerce for significant new use as an alternative. 40 CFR 82.176(a). This requirement applies to the persons planning to introduce the substitute into interstate commerce,
The Agency has identified four possible decision categories for substitutes that are submitted for evaluation: acceptable; acceptable subject to use conditions; acceptable subject to narrowed use limits; and unacceptable
After reviewing a substitute, the Agency may make a determination that a substitute is acceptable only if certain conditions in the way that the substitute is used are met to minimize risks to human health and the environment. EPA describes such substitutes as “acceptable subject to use conditions.” Entities that use these substitutes without meeting the associated use conditions are in violation of EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
For some substitutes, the Agency may permit a narrowed range of use within an end-use or sector. For example, the Agency may limit the use of a substitute to certain end-uses or specific applications within an industry sector. EPA describes these substitutes as “acceptable subject to narrowed use limits.” A person using a substitute that is acceptable subject to narrowed use limits in applications and end-uses that are not consistent with the narrowed use limit is using the substitute in an unacceptable manner and is in violation of section 612 of the CAA and EPA's SNAP regulations. 40 CFR 82.174(c).
The Agency publishes its SNAP program decisions in the
In contrast, EPA publishes decisions concerning substitutes that are deemed acceptable with no restrictions in “notices of acceptability” or “determinations of acceptability,” rather than as proposed and final rules. As described in the preamble to the rule initially implementing the SNAP program (59 FR 13044, March 18, 1994), EPA does not believe that rulemaking procedures are necessary to list alternatives that are acceptable without restrictions because such listings neither impose any sanction nor prevent anyone from using a substitute.
Many SNAP listings include “Comments” or “Further Information” to provide additional information on substitutes. Since this additional information is not part of the regulatory decision, these statements are not binding for use of the substitute under the SNAP program. However, regulatory requirements so listed are binding under other regulatory programs (e.g., worker protection regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). The “Further Information” classification does not necessarily include all other legal obligations pertaining to the use of the substitute. While the items listed are not legally binding under the SNAP program, EPA encourages users of substitutes to apply all statements in the “Further Information” column in their use of these substitutes. In many instances, the information simply refers to sound operating practices that have already been identified in existing industry and/or building codes or standards. Thus many of the statements, if adopted, would not require the affected user to make significant changes in existing operating practices.
For copies of the comprehensive SNAP lists of substitutes or additional information on SNAP, refer to EPA's Ozone Depletion Web site at:
Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.