Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Act"),
The Exchange proposes to amend Commentary .06 to NYSE Arca Rule 6.8 to adopt a pilot program eliminating position limits for options on the SPDR(r) S&P 500(r) exchange-traded fund ("SPY ETF"),
In its filing with the Commission, the self-regulatory organization included statements concerning the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule change and discussed any comments it received on the proposed rule change. The text of those statements may be examined at the places specified in Item IV below. The Exchange has prepared summaries, set forth in sections A, B, and C below, of the most significant parts of such statements.
The purpose of the proposal is to amend Commentary .06 to NYSE Arca Rule 6.8 to adopt a pilot program eliminating position limits for SPY options. The Exchange is basing this proposal on a recently approved rule change by NYSE MKT LLC, on behalf of NYSE Amex Options LLC ("NYSE Amex Options"), to adopt a pilot program to eliminate position limits for SPY options.
Position limits serve as a regulatory tool designed to address potential manipulative schemes and adverse market impact surrounding the use of options. The Exchange understands that the Commission, when considering the appropriate level at which to set option position and exercise limits, has considered the concern that the limits be sufficient to prevent investors from disrupting the market in the security underlying the option.
SPY options are currently the most actively traded option class in terms of average daily volume ("ADV").
The Exchange believes that current experience with the trading of SPY options, as well as the Exchange's surveillance capabilities, has made it appropriate to consider other, less prophylactic alternatives to regulating SPY options, while still seeking to ensure that large positions in SPY options will not unduly disrupt the options or underlying cash markets. Accordingly, the Exchange proposes to eliminate the position limits on SPY options--currently 900,000 contracts on the same side of the market.
The Exchange has considered the existence of economically equivalent or similar products, and their respective position limits, if any, in assessing the appropriateness of proposing an elimination of position limits for SPY options.
For example, AM-settled options on the S&P 500 Index, which list and trade exclusively on the Chicago Board Options Exchange ("CBOE") under the symbol SPX, are currently not subject to position limits.
Similarly, the C2 Options Exchange ("C2") has recently introduced a PM-settled S&P 500 cash settled contract ("SPXPM"), which also is not subject to position limits.
The Exchange believes that, because SPX, SPXPM, and SPY options are ultimately derivative of the same benchmark--the S&P 500 Index--they should be treated equally from a position limit perspective. As a practical matter, investors utilize SPX, SPXPM, and SPY options and their respective underlying instruments and futures to gain exposure to the same benchmark index: The S&P 500. Further, because the creation and redemption process for the underlying SPY ETF allows large investors to transfer positions from a basket of stocks comprising the S&P 500 index to an equivalent number of ETF shares (and the reverse) with relative ease, there is no reason to disadvantage options overlying the one versus the other. The Exchange believes that this view is supported by the recent expansion of various exemptions from position limits, such as the Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption
The Exchange also believes that Commission findings in approving the SPXPM options further support treating SPY options in the same manner as SPX and SPXPM options for purposes of position limits. In particular, the Commission noted in approving SPXPM options that "C2's proposal will offer investors another investment option through which they could obtain and hedge exposure to the S&P 500 stocks," and that "C2's proposal will provide investors with the ability to trade an option on the S&P 500 index in an all-electronic market, which may better meet the needs of investors who may prefer to trade electronically."
The Exchange notes that, with respect to competition amongst economically equivalent products, a 2005 paper by Hans Dutt and Lawrence Harris that set forth a model to determine appropriate position limits for cash-settled index derivatives observed that "markets and their regulators should take a closer look at the underlying economic rationale for the levels at which they currently set their position limits to ensure that the limits adequately protect markets from manipulation and that inconsistent position limits do not produce competitive advantages and disadvantages among contracts."
In addition, the Exchange notes that the Dutt-Harris Paper focuses its attention on the concerns relating to manipulation of cash-settled derivatives, stating that "[a]lthough several scholars have argued that cash settlement may increase the risk of market manipulation, until recently, the theoretical problems arising from potential cash settlement manipulation has been considered minor, as evidenced by the lack of academic interest in this area."
Similarly, the Exchange notes that in the Dutt-Harris Paper the authors observed that the lack of scholarly interest in the cash-settlement manipulation problem may have been "due to the fact that, until recently, most U.S. exchange-traded cash-settled derivative contracts were based on broad indices of very liquid stocks," and that "[m]anipulation of such instruments require very large trades that are costly to make and easy to detect through conventional surveillance."
The Exchange has also considered the liquidity of SPY options and the underlying SPY ETF in assessing the appropriateness of proposing an elimination of position limits for SPY options.
In approving the elimination of position and exercise limits on SPX options, the Commission noted that the deep, liquid markets for the securities underlying the S&P 500 Index reduced concerns regarding market manipulation or disruption in the underlying markets.
In this regard, both the SPY ETF and SPY options similarly exhibit deep, liquid markets. However, SPY options are not as active as SPX options when adjusted for the difference in their notional size.
The Exchange believes that certain factors may result in SPX options--adjusted for their larger notional size--currently trading with greater volume than SPY options.
As a further comparison, the following table sets forth certain data for both the SPY ETF and the combined volume for the component securities upon which the S&P 500 Index is based:
This data shows that there is tremendous liquidity in both SPY ETF shares and the component securities upon which the S&P 500 Index is based. While the ADV for the components underlying the S&P 500 Index is greater than the ADV for the SPY ETF, the Exchange believes that SPY ETF volume has been, is currently and will likely continue to be within a range that the Commission has previously determined to be a deep, liquid market.
The Exchange has also considered the market capitalization of the SPY ETF and the S&P 500 Index in assessing the appropriateness of proposing an elimination of position limits for SPY options.
The Exchange understands that the Commission similarly considered the market capitalization of the underlying index when it approved the elimination of position limits in SPX options. Accordingly, the Exchange believes that the capitalization of and the deep, liquid markets for the underlying SPY ETF reduces concerns regarding market manipulation or disruption in the underlying market. The table below shows the market capitalization of the SPY ETF and the S&P 500 Index:
This data shows the enormous capitalization of both the SPY ETF and the component securities upon which the S&P 500 Index is based. While the capitalization for the components underlying the S&P 500 Index is greater than that for the SPY ETF, the Exchange believes that the SPY ETF capitalization has nonetheless been, is currently and will likely continue to be at a level consistent with that which the Commission has previously determined to be enormously capitalized.
The Exchange notes that the theoretical limit on one's ability to hedge both SPX and SPY options is the full market capitalization of the S&P 500 Index itself. This similarly contributes to the Exchange's determination that it is appropriate for position limits on SPY options to be eliminated.
The Exchange has also considered the reporting of large option positions and related margin requirements in assessing the appropriateness of proposing an elimination of position limits for SPY options.
The Exchange notes that the Large Option Position Reporting ("LOPR") requirement in NYSE Arca Rule 6.6 would continue to apply. Rule 6.6 requires members and member organizations to file a report with the Exchange with respect to each account in which the member or member organization has an interest; each account of a partner, officer, director, trustee or employee of such member organization; and each customer account that has established an aggregate position (whether long or short) that meets certain determined thresholds (e.g., 200 or more option contracts if the underlying security is a stock or Exchange-Traded Fund Share). Rule 6.6 also permits the Exchange to impose a higher margin requirement upon the account of a member or member organization when it determines that the account maintains an under-hedged position.
Additionally, Rule 6.6 provides:
In addition to the requirements under Rule 6.6(a), each OTP Holder or OTP Firm (other than an Exchange Market Maker), that maintains a position in excess of 10,000 Non-FLEX equity option contracts on the same side of the market on behalf of its own account or for the account of a customer, must report information, in a manner and form prescribed by the Exchange, as to whether such positions are hedged and provide documentation as to how such contracts are hedged. In addition, whenever the Exchange determines, based on a report to the Exchange or otherwise, that a higher margin requirement is necessary in light of the risks associated with an under-hedged Non-FLEX equity option position in excess of 10,000 contracts on the same side of the market, the Exchange may, pursuant to its authority under Exchange Rule 4.16, consider imposing additional margin upon the account maintaining such under-hedged position. It should be noted that the clearing firm carrying the account will be subject to capital charges under SEC Rule 15c3-1 to the extent of any margin deficiency from the higher margin requirements.
Monitoring accounts maintaining large positions provides the Exchange with the information necessary to determine whether to impose additional margin and/or whether to assess capital charges upon a member organization carrying the account. In addition, the Commission's net capital rule, Rule 15c3-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Act"),
In approving SPXPM, the Commission addressed concerns about the lack of a position limit by noting that CBOE will rely on its enhanced surveillance requirements and procedures for SPX options to monitor trading activity in SPXPM options.
The Exchange has also considered the potential for resulting or increased market on close volatility in assessing the appropriateness of proposing an elimination of position limits for SPY options.
SPY options are American-style, physically settled options that can be exercised at any time and settle into shares of the underlying SPY ETF. A key characteristic of the SPY ETF is that the number of shares outstanding is limited only by the number of shares available in the component securities of the S&P 500 Index, which can be used to create additional SPY ETF shares as needed. This in-kind creation and redemption mechanism has proven to be quite robust, as evidenced by the SPY ETF's close tracking of its benchmark index and the relatively small premiums or discounts to Net Asset Value ("NAV") that it has historically exhibited.
As a physically-settled option, SPY options can be easily hedged via long or short positions in SPY ETF shares, which, as noted above, can be easily created or redeemed as needed. With a physically-settled contract such as SPY options, once a hedge in the form of a long or short position is obtained, that hedge can only be lost if the underlying security becomes hard to borrow and the short position is bought in.
The implementation of this proposed rule change will be contingent on other factors, including the completion of any changes that may be necessary to the Exchange's regulatory and surveillance program. Once this rule filing is effective, the Exchange will announce the implementation of the elimination of position limits on SPY options through a notice to OTP Holders.
NYSE Arca proposes that this rule change be adopted pursuant to a pilot program, set to expire December 5, 2013. The Exchange will perform an analysis of the initial pilot program to eliminate position limits in SPY after the first twelve (12) months of the pilot program (the "Pilot Report"). NYSE Arca represents that the Pilot Report will be submitted within thirty (30) days of the end of such twelve (12) month time period. The Pilot Report will detail the size and different types of strategies employed with respect to positions established as a result of the elimination of position limits in SPY. In addition, the Pilot Report will note whether any problems resulted due to the no limit approach and any other information that may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of the pilot program. The Pilot Report will compare the impact of the pilot program, if any, on the volumes of SPY options and the volatility in the price of the underlying SPY shares, particularly at expiration. In preparing the report the Exchange will utilize various data elements such as volume and open interest. In addition, the Exchange has represented that it will make available to Commission staff data elements relating to the effectiveness of the pilot.
Depending on the findings in the Pilot Report, NYSE Arca will file with the Commission a proposal to either extend the pilot program, adopt the pilot program on a permanent basis, or terminate the pilot program. If the pilot program is not extended or adopted on a permanent basis by December 5, 2013, the position limits for SPY would revert to limits in effect at the commencement of the pilot program.
The proposed rule change is consistent with Section 6(b)
The Exchange further notes that the rule proposal will remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market because it will harmonize how position limits are treated for SPY options across options markets. As noted above, the Commission has already approved the elimination of position limits for SPY options for NYSE Amex Options, and the Exchange believes that harmonizing the standard across options markets will enable market participants to handle trading in SPY options similarly regardless of which options market in which they are trading.
The Exchange does not believe that the proposed rule change will impose any burden on competition that is not necessary or appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.
No written comments were solicited or received with respect to the proposed rule change.
The Exchange has filed the proposed rule change pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the Act
A proposed rule change filed pursuant to Rule 19b-4(f)(6) under the Act
At any time within 60 days of the filing of the proposed rule change, the Commission summarily may temporarily suspend such rule change if it appears to the Commission that such action is necessary or appropriate in the public interest, for the protection of investors, or otherwise in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.
Interested persons are invited to submit written data, views, and arguments concerning the foregoing, including whether the proposed rule change is consistent with the Act. Comments may be submitted by any of the following methods:
* Use the Commission's Internet comment form (
* Send an email to
* Send paper comments in triplicate to Elizabeth M. Murphy, Secretary, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090.
All submissions should refer to File Number SR-NYSEArca-2012-112 and should be submitted on or before November 2, 2012.