Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
Throughout this document, the terms “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to EPA.
In May 1995, EPA approved Arizona's Basic and Enhanced Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance (VEI) Programs as a revision to the Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990 (CAA or “Act”) and EPA's motor vehicle inspection and maintenance rule (“EPA's I/M rule” or “federal I/M rule”) as amended. See 60 FR 22518 (May 8, 1995). A “basic” I/M program was required in the Phoenix metropolitan area (referred to as “Area A”) due to the area's designation as a “moderate” nonattainment area for the carbon monoxide (CO) and the 1-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS or “standard”).
Since the Arizona VEI programs were originally approved in May 1995, EPA has amended the federal I/M rule several times to provide states with more flexibility in designing their programs but also to require testing of the on-board diagnostic (OBD) system. Since that time, Arizona has also made a number of changes to its enhanced and basic VEI programs.
In January 2003, we approved changes to the Arizona VEI programs submitted to us on July 6, 2001 and April 10, 2002, including the incorporation of OBD testing, an exemption for the first five model year vehicles from the programs on a rolling basis, replacement of the previously-approved remote sensing program in Phoenix with an on-road testing study, and legislative changes to the waiver provisions. See 68 FR 2912 (January 22, 2003). In our January 2003 final rule, we also approved the VEI program in the Phoenix area as meeting the enhanced I/M program performance standard.
In our January 2003 final rule, we also approved an expansion of the geographic area in which the VEI program in the Phoenix area applies, an area referred to as “Area A.” Area A, as approved in 2003, includes all of the metropolitan Phoenix carbon monoxide and 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas plus additional areas in Maricopa County to the north, east, and west, as well as a small portion of Yavapai County and the western portions of Pinal County. “Area A” is also used by the State of Arizona to identify the applicable area for implementation of a number of other air pollution control measures, including but not limited to the EPA-approved cleaner burning gasoline (CBG) and stage II vapor recovery programs. See, e.g., 69 FR 10161 (March 4, 2004) (approval of CBG program), and 77 FR 35279 (June 13, 2012) (approval of revised Stage II vapor recovery program). “Area A” is defined at Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) section 49-541, subsection (1).
In April 2004, we published a final rule governing the transition from the 1-hour ozone NAAQS to the 8-hour ozone standard that we promulgated in 1997. See 69 FR 23951 (April 30, 2004).
In April 2004, we published a second final rule related to ozone, and in this other rule, we designated the Phoenix-Mesa area as a nonattainment area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, 69 FR 23858, at 23878 (April 30, 2004), and, later, classified the area as “Subpart 2/Marginal” for that standard, 77 FR 28424 (May 14, 2012). Thus, the requirement to continue to implement an enhanced I/M program continues to apply in the Phoenix metropolitan area based the area's designation and classification for the 1-hour ozone standard notwithstanding revocation of the 1-hour ozone standard in June 2005.
In 2005, we approved maintenance plans and redesignation requests for both the carbon monoxide and 1-hour ozone standards in the Phoenix area. See 70 FR 11553 (March 9, 2005) (carbon monoxide redesignation request and maintenance plan approval), and 70 FR 34362 (June 14, 2005) (1-hour ozone redesignation request and maintenance plan approval). Both approved maintenance plans include “Expansion of Area A Boundaries” as a contingency measure.
In March 2007, we approved changes to the Arizona VEI programs submitted to us on December 23, 2005 and October 3, 2006, including an exemption for collectible vehicles from VEI testing in the Phoenix metropolitan area, and collectible vehicles and motorcycles from VEI testing in the Tucson metropolitan area. See 72 FR 15046 (March 30, 2007). In our March 2007 rule, we also approved an updated performance evaluation standard for the VEI program in the Phoenix area; and new contingency measures.
On June 13, 2007, ADEQ submitted the
In March 2009, ADEQ submitted the
We have not yet taken action on the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan and do not propose action related to that plan herein. However, today's proposed approval of the expansion of Area A boundaries, as codified in amended ARS 49-541(1) and submitted on May 25, 2012 in connection with the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan (discussed in the following section of this document), provides support for the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan given its reliance on the expansion of Area A boundaries in maintaining the 1997 8-hour ozone standard once the area is redesignated. EPA will take action on the Phoenix-Mesa Eight-Hour Ozone Maintenance Plan in one or more future rulemakings.
Lastly, in March 2008, EPA revised the 8-hour ozone standard to 0.075 parts per million (ppm). See 73 FR 16436 (March 27, 2008). More recently, we designated the Phoenix-Mesa area as a “Marginal” nonattainment area for the 2008 ozone standard, effective July 20, 2012. See 77 FR 30088 (May 21, 2012). Such “Marginal” nonattainment areas must attain the standard as expeditiously as practicable but not later than July 20, 2015 (i.e., 3 years from July 20, 2012, the effective date of the nonattainment designation).
The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) submitted the most recent statutory changes to its Basic and Enhanced VEI Programs as a revision to the Arizona State Implementation Plan (SIP) on November 6, 2009 (“2009 VEI SIP Revision”). The 2009 VEI SIP Revision submittal includes the SIP revision itself, divided into a non-regulatory portion, “Final Arizona State Implementation Plan Revision, Exemption of Motorcycles from Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance Requirements in Area A” (October 2009), and a regulatory portion, House Bill (HB) 2280, as well as supporting materials related to legal authority, adoption, public process and technical analysis.
HB 2280 amends the Arizona Revised Statutes (ARS) Section 49-542 by exempting motorcycles from emissions testing in Area A (i.e., the Phoenix area). Specifically, the amendments to ARS 49-542 are found in paragraphs or subparagraphs (F)(2)(e), (F)(3), (J)(2)(l), and (K) of that section of code. The changes to ARS Section 49-542 are self-implementing, which means that they become effective upon EPA approval as a revision to the Arizona SIP. Section 2 of HB 2280 provides that the exemption becomes effective upon EPA approval of a SIP revision on or before July 10, 2010.
In consultation with EPA concerning the VEI SIP Revision, ADEQ prepared additional information regarding the impacts of the motorcycle exemption on attainment of the 2008 8-hour ozone NAAQS and the 1987 PM
On May 25, 2012, ADEQ submitted
CAA section 110(l) requires revisions to a SIP to be adopted by the state after reasonable notice and public hearing. EPA has promulgated specific requirements for SIP revisions in 40 CFR part 51, subpart F.
On September 14 and 15, 2009, ADEQ published notices in newspapers of general circulation in the Phoenix area of public hearings on proposed revisions to the Arizona SIP to exempt motorcycles in Phoenix from emissions testing requirements under the Arizona VEI programs (i.e., a draft VEI SIP Revision). Public hearings were held on October 15, 2009 in Phoenix. On November 6, 2009, in accordance with Arizona law, ADEQ adopted these exemptions as set forth in “Final Arizona State Implementation Plan Revision, Exemption of Motorcycles from Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance Requirements in Area A” (October 2009) as a revision to the Arizona SIP and submitted the revision to EPA for approval.
ADEQ followed a similar process in adopting and submitting the 2011 VEI SIP Addendum. ADEQ held a public hearing on December 15, 2010 in Phoenix on a draft VEI SIP Addendum and adopted the VEI SIP Addendum on January 11, 2011 in accordance with Arizona law prior to submittal to EPA as a revision to the Arizona SIP.
ADEQ also provided for public comment and hearing of the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan. Specifically, ADEQ published notice of the start of a 30-day comment period on March 12, 2012. In this notice, ADEQ also provided notice of a public hearing that was, as scheduled, held on April 12, 2012. See exhibit 1 (“Public Hearing Process Documentation”) to appendix E to the 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan.
ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision, 2011 VEI SIP Addendum, and 2012 Phoenix Area PM-10 Five Percent Plan submittal packages include evidence of public notice and hearing, ADEQ responses to public comments, and ADEQ adoption as described above, and, based on review of these materials, we find that ADEQ has met the procedural requirements of CAA section 110(l) and 40 CFR part 51, subpart F.
As noted in Section I, Introduction and Background, herein, Arizona's VEI programs were most recently approved as meeting federal I/M program requirements on March 30, 2007 (72 FR 15046). Although the Phoenix and Tucson areas have been redesignated to “attainment” for the CO NAAQS, the VEI programs continue to be relied upon to maintain the CO standard in those areas. Moreover, “enhanced” I/M remains an “applicable requirement” for the Phoenix area under our final rule implementing the 8-hour ozone NAAQS (see 40 CFR 51.900(f) and 51.905(a)(1)) based on the designation of that area as a nonattainment area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS (and designation as nonattainment for the 1-hour ozone NAAQS at the time of designation for the 8-hour standard). Thus, to be approved, the VEI programs, as amended and evaluated herein, must continue to meet the relevant enforceability requirements for I/M programs in subpart S of 40 CFR part 51 and, for the Phoenix area with respect to ozone, the enhanced performance standard in 40 CFR 51.351. In the following paragraphs, we review ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision and 2011 VEI SIP Addendum to determine whether the amended VEI programs continue to meet federal I/M program requirements.
The aspects of I/M affected by the submitted revisions to the VEI programs and the expansion of Area A boundaries include geographic coverage, vehicle coverage and exemptions, compliance enforcement, and the performance standard evaluation.
EPA's I/M regulations require that state I/M programs be implemented in the entire urbanized area, based on the 1990 census. See 40 CFR 51.350. We have found in our approvals of the Arizona VEI program in 1995 and 2003 that the geographic coverage of the VEI program in the Phoenix area meets the minimum requirements of EPA's I/M regulations. Since then, no regulatory changes or new designations have changed the minimum requirements with respect to the geographic coverage of the I/M program in the Phoenix area, and thus, the expansion of the boundaries of Area A, which define the area in which the VEI program is implemented, is also acceptable.
The performance standard for enhanced I/M programs (including alternate low enhanced programs) assumes coverage of all 1968 and later model year light duty vehicles and trucks. Light duty trucks are not included in the performance standard for basic I/M programs. Other levels of coverage may be approved if the necessary emission reductions are achieved. See 40 CFR 51.356.
The Arizona VEI programs approved by EPA in 1995 exempt several categories of vehicles from the emissions testing requirements. Such vehicle categories included, among others, vehicles manufactured in or before the 1966 model year and vehicles being sold between motor vehicle dealers. See 60 FR 22518, 22521 (May 8, 1995). In 2003, we approved revisions to the VEI programs including an exemption for the first five model year vehicles on a rolling basis. See 68 FR 2912 (January 22, 2003). In 2007, we exempted collectible vehicles from the Phoenix and Tucson areas and motorcycles from the Tucson area. The SIP revision we are acting on today would establish an additional vehicle category that would be exempt from emissions testing requirements: Motorcycles from the Phoenix area. Based on data for calendar year 2008, motorcycles make up approximately 38,100 (or 3.7 percent) of the 1,027,600 total number of vehicles subject to VEI in the Phoenix area. See table 9 on page 17 of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision.
Basic and enhanced I/M programs are not required to test any particular category of motor vehicles so long as the performance standard is met, and thus I/M programs are not required to test motorcycles. The effect of the new exemption for motorcycles on the continued ability of the VEI program in the Phoenix area to meet the enhanced I/M program performance standard is discussed below in Section III.B.3, “Performance Evaluation,” and the effect of the new exemptions on emissions and ambient air quality in Phoenix is discussed herein in Section III.C, “Demonstrating Noninterference With Attainment And Maintenance Under CAA Section 110(l).”
Section 51.361 of title 40 of the CFR requires that denial of motor vehicle registration be the method used to ensure compliance with enhanced I/M programs. ARS Section 49-542(D) and Arizona Administrative Code (AAC) R18-2-1007 requires that all vehicles must complete a vehicle emissions inspection to obtain a vehicle registration.
Exemption of motorcycles in the Phoenix area from emissions testing would be straightforward from the standpoint of compliance enforcement and would not undermine compliance enforcement for other types of vehicles that continue to be subject to the emissions testing requirements under the VEI program in the Phoenix area. Owners of motorcycles registered in the Phoenix area will simply receive a registration or re-registration form from the Arizona Department of Transportation, Motor Vehicle Division that indicates “emissions test not required.”
Therefore, we find that the Arizona VEI programs, as amended to exempt motorcycles in the Phoenix area, would continue to meet the compliance enforcement requirements of 40 CFR 51.361.
As part of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision submittal, ADEQ provided an updated performance evaluation using the EPA's motor vehicle emissions model, MOBILE6.2.
For the updated evaluation, ADEQ developed and applied reduction factors
The results of ADEQ's analysis are summarized in Table 1 below, which shows that the emissions reduction benefits achieved by the Phoenix VEI program as amended are higher than those achieved under the performance standard. The amended Phoenix VEI program thus continues to achieve greater emissions reductions than the federal model program because the VEI program includes elements that go beyond federal I/M requirements. These include a requirement for a one-time only waiver, an implementation area beyond the nonattainment area boundaries, and denial of waivers for grossly-emitting vehicles.
Based on our review of the 2009 VEI SIP Revision, we find ADEQ's methods used to update the performance standard evaluation and use of the alternate low enhanced I/M performance standard to be acceptable, and we find that the VEI program, as amended to exempt motorcycles in the Phoenix area from the emissions testing requirements, exceeds the alternate low enhanced I/M performance standard in the Phoenix area as required under 40 CFR 51.351 and 51.905(a)(1).
Revisions to SIP-approved control measures must meet the requirements of Clean Air Act section 110(l) to be approved by EPA. Section 110(l) states in relevant part: “The Administrator shall not approve a revision of a plan if the revision would interfere with any applicable requirement concerning attainment and reasonable further progress (as defined in section 171), or any other applicable requirement of this Act.”
We interpret section 110(l) to apply to all requirements of the CAA and to all areas of the country, whether attainment, nonattainment, unclassifiable, or maintenance for one or more of the six criteria pollutants. We also interpret section 110(l) to require a demonstration addressing all pollutants whose emissions and/or ambient concentrations may change as a result of the SIP revision. Thus, for example, modification of a SIP-approved measure may impact NO
The 2009 VEI SIP Revision submittal that seeks exemption of motorcycles from the Phoenix enhanced I/M program includes an evaluation of the effects of the revision to the VEI programs on ozone, carbon monoxide, PM
The 2009 report indicates that ADEQ used the EPA's motor vehicle emissions model program, MOBILE6.2, to estimate the emissions effects of the new exemptions. The methods used to gather data included acquisition of data from the State vehicle emissions inspections programs, other state agencies, air quality planning agencies and relevant air quality plans. We find that ADEQ used reasonable methods and appropriate models in estimating the emissions effects of the new exemptions. Table 2 below summarizes ADEQ's estimates by pollutant in units of metric tons per day (mtpd). Table 2 also shows the emissions impact as a percentage of the overall pollutant-specific inventory in the applicable area.
Ozone is formed by the interaction of directly-emitted precursor emissions, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO
As noted above, in 2004, EPA designated the Phoenix area as a nonattainment area for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, 69 FR 23858 (April 30, 2004), and in 2012, designated the Phoenix area as a nonattainment area for the 2008 8-hour ozone standard, 77 FR 30088 (May 21, 2012).
As indicated in Table 2 above, based on ADEQ's estimates, the revision to the 2009 VEI program in Phoenix would increase VOC emissions by approximately 0.056 metric tons per day, which represents approximately 0.009% of the overall VOC emissions inventory in this area under existing conditions. ADEQ did not estimate NO
While minor, the incremental increase in VOC emissions due to the motorcycle exemption would occur in an area that is violating the 2008 ozone standard based on the design value for 2008-2010.
ADEQ's 2011 VEI SIP Addendum includes a measure that is intended to substitute for the foregone VOC emissions reductions from the motorcycle exemption and to thereby provide a basis to find that the 2009 VEI SIP Revision would not interfere with attainment of the 2008 ozone standard. The measure identified as the substitute is a 2008 EPA rule for aerosol coatings (spray paints and coatings) (“coatings rule”). See 73 FR 15604 (March 24, 2008) 74 FR 29595 (June 23, 2009). The compliance date for the 2008 EPA coatings rule was July 1, 2009. The designation of the Phoenix-Mesa area as a “marginal” nonattainment for the 2008 ozone NAAQS reflects ambient data from calendar years 2008-2010, and thus reflects in part the VOC emission reduction benefit from the 2008 EPA coatings rule and still the Phoenix area appears to be violating the 2008 ozone standard. Thus, with the information available at the present time, we cannot conclude that the coatings rule would offset the VOC emissions increases estimated to occur due to the motorcycle exemption. However, we find that the expansion of the boundaries of Area A, as submitted in regulatory form in ADEQ's submittal dated May 25, 2012, would more than offset the incremental increase in VOC emissions.
As noted above, the estimated benefit of “Expansion of Area A Boundaries” would be approximately 1.3 metric tons per day of VOC due to the extension of the applicability of the VEI program to areas not otherwise subject to the program.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion of fuels. In most urban areas, most of the CO comes from motor vehicle exhaust.
In 2005, EPA redesignated the Phoenix area for CO, and approved a maintenance plan that provides for maintenance of the CO NAAQS in that area through 2015. See 70 FR 11553 (March 9, 2005) and 70 FR 52926 (September 6, 2005).
As indicated in Table 2 above, based on ADEQ's estimates, the motorcycle exemption would increase CO emissions by approximately 0.246 metric tons per day, which represents approximately 0.027% of the overall CO emissions inventory in this area under existing conditions. This incremental increase would be more than offset by the expansion of Area A boundaries.
Specifically, overall CO emissions are expected to decrease by only 1% between 2006 and 2015,
Therefore, based on the net reduction in CO emissions due to the VEI SIP Revision and expansion of Area A boundaries, the relatively constant level of overall CO emissions, and monitoring data that shows that ambient CO levels remain well below the CO NAAQS, we find that exempting motorcycles from emissions testing under the VEI program, together with expanding the boundaries of Area A, would not interfere with continued attainment of the CO NAAQS in the Phoenix area.
EPA has promulgated different NAAQS for particles with a nominal aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less (PM
In 1990, the Phoenix area was designated as a “moderate” nonattainment for the PM
In 2005, EPA designated Maricopa County as “unclassifiable/attainment” for the 1997 PM
Neither the MOBILE6.2 nor the MOVES2010 emissions models provide any PM
With respect to the PM
Since the CAA does not have ambient air quality standards for air toxics, the EPA's interpretation of section 110(l) is that an area's compliance with any applicable Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards, as well as any Federal Motor Vehicle Control Programs (FMVCP) under sections 112 or 202(l) of the CAA constitutes an acceptable demonstration of noninterference for air toxics. Motor vehicles are not subject to MACT standards, and the VEI SIP Revision, together with the expansion of Area A boundaries, will not interfere with any Federal Motor Vehicle Control Programs that apply in the area. For these reasons, the State thus concludes, and EPA concurs, that the VEI SIP Revision and expansion of Area A boundaries would not interfere with any applicable CAA requirements relative to air toxics.
Based on the evaluation presented above, we find that the exemption of motorcycles in the Phoenix area from the VEI program, coupled with the expansion of the boundaries of Area A would not interfere with reasonable further progress or attainment of any of the NAAQS, and thus, we propose to approve the 2009 VEI SIP Revision, 2011 VEI SIP Addendum, and the expansion of the boundaries of Area A [i.e., amended ARS section 49-541(1)] as consistent with the requirements for SIP revisions under CAA section 110(l).
In 2005, EPA redesignated the Phoenix area from nonattainment to attainment for the CO NAAQS and approved a maintenance plan. See 70 FR 11553 (March 9, 2005) and 70 FR 52926 (September 6, 2005). The CO maintenance plan includes contingency elements or plans that we approved as meeting the requirements of CAA section 175A(d).
The contingency plan establishes an action (or trigger) level protective of the NAAQS and identifies several measures, including expansion of “Area A” (the area in which certain control measures apply), for early implementation as well as consideration of additional measures on a set schedule following the triggering event. At the time of redesignation of the Phoenix area to attainment for the CO NAAQS, the VEI programs were adopted and approved into the Arizona SIP and were assumed to continue in effect throughout the maintenance periods. Moreover, the VEI programs at the time of redesignation of these areas did not exempt motorcycles from the emissions testing requirements.
Generally, contingency plans should clearly identify the measures to be adopted, a schedule and procedure for adoption and implementation, and a specific time limit for action by the State and should also identify specific indicators, or triggers, which will be used to determine when the contingency measures need to be implemented. See EPA Memorandum from John Calcagni, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, entitled “Procedures for Processing Requests to Redesignate Areas to Attainment,” dated September 4, 1992. At a minimum, CAA section 175A(d) requires that the State adopt as contingency measures all control measures that had been approved in the SIP for the area prior to redesignation but that the State subsequently repeals or relaxes. In this instance, because the EPA-approved VEI emissions testing requirements applied to motorcycles at the time of redesignation for the Phoenix area, reinstatement of emissions testing for this newly-exempt vehicle category must be adopted as contingency measures for the Phoenix CO maintenance areas to comply with CAA section 175A(d).
ADEQ's 2009 VEI SIP Revision includes a new contingency measure establishing a binding commitment on ADEQ to request Legislative action to reinstate emissions testing for motorcycles in the Phoenix area should the applicable area experience a violation of the CO standards.
We view ADEQ's contingency measure in the context of the existing EPA-approved CO contingency plans for the Phoenix area, and as such, we find that the plans, as amended to include these new contingency measures, continue to meet the requirements of CAA section 175A(d), and that the new contingency measure itself is consistent with all applicable requirements.
Under section 110(k) of the CAA, EPA is proposing to approve the revisions to the Arizona SIP submitted by ADEQ on November 6, 2009 and January 11, 2011 concerning the exemption of motorcycles from the Arizona VEI program in the Phoenix area, because we find that the revisions meet all
We will accept comments from the public on this proposal for the next 30 days.
Under the Clean Air Act, the Administrator is required to approve a SIP submission that complies with the provisions of the Act and applicable Federal regulations. 42 U.S.C. 7410(k); 40 CFR 52.02(a). Thus, in reviewing SIP submissions, EPA's role is to approve state choices, provided that they meet the criteria of the Clean Air Act. Accordingly, this action merely proposes to approve state law as meeting Federal requirements and does not impose additional requirements beyond those imposed by state law. For that reason, this proposed action:
• Is not a “significant regulatory action” subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993);
• Does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501
• Is certified as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601
• Does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4);
• Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999);
• Is not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997);
• Is not a significant regulatory action subject to Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001);
• Is not subject to requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those requirements would be inconsistent with the Clean Air Act; and
• Does not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
In addition, this proposed rule does not have tribal implications as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), because the SIP is not approved to apply in Indian country located in the state, and EPA notes that it will not impose substantial direct costs on tribal governments or preempt tribal law.
Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Oxides of nitrogen, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds.