Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written comments, data, or views. The most helpful comments reference a specific portion of the special conditions, explain the reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data.
We will consider all comments we receive on or before the closing date for comments. We may change these special conditions based on the comments we receive.
On May 14, 2009, Embraer S.A. applied for a type certificate for their new Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is the first of a new family of jet airplanes designed for corporate flight, fractional, charter, and private owner operations. The aircraft has a conventional configuration with a low wing and T-tail empennage. The primary structure is metal with composite empennage and control surfaces. The Model EMB-550 airplane is designed for 8 passengers, with a maximum of 12 passengers. It is equipped with two Honeywell HTF7500-E medium bypass ratio turbofan engines mounted on aft fuselage pylons. Each engine produces approximately 6,540 pounds of thrust for normal takeoff. The primary flight controls consist of hydraulically powered fly-by-wire elevators, aileron and rudder, controlled by the pilot or copilot sidestick.
The airworthiness standards in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 25 do not specifically relate to flight characteristics associated with fixed attitude limits. Embraer S.A. will implement pitch and roll attitude protection functions through the normal modes of the electronic flight control system that will provide speed stability for high and low pitch angles. These functions also provide strong spiral stability for roll angles at high bank angles. In addition, bank angle limiting is introduced at speeds greater than V
Under the provisions of 14 CFR 21.17, Embraer S.A. must show that the Model EMB-550 airplane meets the applicable provisions of part 25, as amended by Amendments 25-1 through 25-127 thereto.
If the Administrator finds that the applicable airworthiness regulations (i.e., 14 CFR part 25) do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the Model EMB-550 airplane because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of § 21.16.
Special conditions are initially applicable to the model for which they are issued. Should the type certificate for that model be amended later to include any other model that incorporates the same or similar novel or unusual design feature, the special conditions would also apply to the other model under § 21.101.
In addition to the applicable airworthiness regulations and special conditions, the Model EMB-550 airplane must comply with the fuel vent and exhaust emission requirements of 14 CFR part 34 and the noise certification requirements of 14 CFR part 36 and the FAA must issue a finding of regulatory adequacy under § 611 of Public Law 92-574, the “Noise Control Act of 1972.”
The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in accordance with § 11.38, and they become part of the type-certification basis under § 21.17(a)(2).
The Model EMB-550 airplane will incorporate the following novel or unusual design feature: An electronic flight control system which contains fly-by-wire control laws, including envelope protections, which were not envisioned when part 25 was written.
We expect that high thrust-to-weight ratios will provide the most critical cases for the positive pitch limit. A margin in pitch control must be available to enable speed control in maneuvers such as climb after takeoff and balked landing climb. The pitch limit must not impede likely maneuvering made necessary by collision avoidance efforts. A negative pitch limit must similarly not interfere with collision avoidance capability or with attaining and maintaining speeds near V
Spiral stability must not restrict attaining roll angles up to 65 degrees (i.e., an approximately 2.4
These proposed special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.
As discussed above, these special conditions are applicable to the Model EMB-550 airplane. Should Embraer S.A. apply at a later date for a change to the type certificate to include another model incorporating the same novel or unusual design feature, the special conditions would apply to that model as well.
This action affects only certain novel or unusual design features on one model of airplanes. It is not a rule of general applicability.
Aircraft, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.
The authority citation for these special conditions is as follows:
49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701, 44702, 44704.
Accordingly, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes the following special conditions as part of the type certification basis for Embraer S.A. Model EMB-550 airplanes.In addition to § 25.143, the following requirements apply:
1. Flight Envelope Protection: Pitch and Roll Limiting Functions.
a. The pitch limiting function must not impede normal maneuvering for pitch angles up to the maximum required for normal maneuvering, including a normal all-engines operating takeoff, plus a suitable margin to allow for satisfactory speed control.
b. The pitch and roll limiting functions must not restrict or prevent attaining pitch attitudes necessary for emergency maneuvering or roll angles up to 66 degrees with flaps up, or 60 degrees with flaps down. Spiral stability, which is introduced above 33 degrees roll angle, must not require excessive pilot strength to achieve these roll angles. Other protections, which further limit the roll capability under certain extreme angle of attack or attitude or high speed conditions, are acceptable, as long as they allow at least 45 degrees of roll capability.
c. A lower limit of roll is acceptable beyond the overspeed warning if it is possible to recover the aircraft to the normal flight envelope without undue difficulty ordelay.