Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government


Bureau of Indian Affairs

25 CFR Part 162

[Docket ID BIA-2011-0001]

RIN 1076-AE73

Residential, Business, and Wind and Solar Resource Leases on Indian Land

AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior.
ACTION: Final rule.
SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is revising its regulations addressing non-agricultural surface leasing of Indian land. This rule adds new regulations to address residential leases, business leases, wind energy evaluation leases, and wind and solar development leases on Indian land, and removes the existing regulations for non-agricultural leases.
DATES: This rule is effective on January 4, 2013.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elizabeth Appel, Acting Director, Office of Regulatory Affairs & Collaborative Action, (202) 273-4680;

I. Executive Summary II. Summary of Substantive Revisions III. Responses to Comments on the Proposed Rule A. Overview B. Format of Regulations C. General Provisions 162.002—How the Part Is Subdivided 162.003—Definitions 162.004 (PR 162.006)—Applicability to Indian Land and Life Estates 162.005 (PR 162.008)—When a Lease Is Needed 162.006 (PR 162.007)—Land Use Agreements Subject to This Part 162.007 (PR 162.004)—Permits 162.008 (PR 162.005)—Applicability to Documents Submitted Before Effective Date 162.009 (PR N/A)—Approval of Subleasehold Mortgages (New Section) 162.010 (PR 162.009)—How To Obtain a Lease 162.011 (PR 162.010)—Identifying and Contacting Indian Landowners 162.013 (PR 162.012)—Consent 162.014 (PR 162.013)—What Laws Apply to Leases 162.015 (PR N/A) —Tribal Employment Preference Laws (New Section) 162.016 (PR 162.014)—BIA Compliance With Tribal Laws 162.017 (PR N/A)—What Taxes Apply (New Section) 162.018 (PR 162.015)—Tribal Administration of Part 162 162.019 (PR 162.016)—Access to Leased Premises 162.020 (PR 162.017)—Unitized Leases 162.021 (PR 162.018)—BIA Responsibilities in Approving Leases 162.022 (PR 162.019)—BIA Responsibilities in Enforcing Leases 162.023 (PR 162.020)—Trespass 162.024 (PR 162.021)—Emergency Action 162.025 (PR 162.022)—Appeals 162.026 (PR 162.023)—Contact for Questions 162.027 (PR 162.024)—NEPA & Records 162.028 (PR N/A)—Obtaining Information on Leased Land (New Section) D. Residential Leases E. Business Leases F. WEELs G. WSR Leases H. Cross-Cutting Comments 1. Lease Term 2. Option To Renew 3. Mandatory Lease Provisions 4. Improvements 5. Due Diligence 6. Legal Description—Surveys 7. Compatible Uses 8. Rental/Payment Requirements—Tribal Land 9. Rental/Payment Requirements—Individually Owned Indian Land 10. Rental/Payment Requirements—Valuations 11. Rental/Payment Requirements—When Payment Is Due 12. Rental/Payment Requirements—Direct Pay 13. Rental/Payment Requirements—Payment Methods 14. Rental/Payment Requirements—Types of Compensation 15. Rental/Payment Reviews & Adjustments 16. Bonding & Insurance 17. Approvals—Documents Required 18. Approval Process & Timeline 19. How BIA Decides To Approve Lease Documents 20. Effective Date of Leases 21. Recording 22. Appeal Bonds 23. Amendments 24. Assignments 25. Subleases 26. Leasehold Mortgages 27. Appeals From Inaction 28. Compliance and Enforcement 29. Miscellaneous IV. Procedural Requirements A. Regulatory Planning and Review (E.O. 12866 and E.O. 13563) B. Regulatory Flexibility Act C. Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act E. Takings (E.O. 12630) F. Federalism (E.O. 13132) G. Civil Justice Reform (E.O. 12988) H. Consultation With Indian Tribes (E.O. 13175) I. Paperwork Reduction Act J. National Environmental Policy Act K. Effects on the Energy Supply (E.O. 13211) I. Executive Summary

Federal statutes require the Secretary to approve leases of Indian land. The rule establishing the procedures for obtaining Secretarial approval of leases and administration and enforcement of surface leases is at 25 CFR part 162, Leases and Permits. Currently, part 162 contains a subpart addressing all non-agricultural leases. This rule replaces that general subpart with subparts specifically addressing the following categories of leasing on Indian land: residential, business, and wind resource evaluation and wind and solar resource development. Specifically, this rule:

• Revises Subpart A, General Provisions;

• Creates a new Subpart C, Residential Leases;

• Creates a new Subpart D, Business Leases;

• Creates a new Subpart E, Wind Energy Evaluation Leases (WEELs) and Wind and Solar Resource (WSR) Leases;

• Deletes Subpart F, Non-agricultural Leases (because that subpart was intended to address residential and business leasing, which this rule addresses specifically in subparts C and D, respectively);

• Moves the current Subpart E, Special Requirements for Certain Indian Reservations, to Subpart F; and

• Creates a new Subpart G, Records.

The rule does not affect Subpart B, Agricultural Leases. Subpart B may be revised at a later time. In addition, to ensure that changes to the General Provisions do not affect agricultural lease regulations, the current General Provisions section is being moved to Subpart B, where they apply only to agricultural leases. Minor edits were made to the General Provision section to delete redundancies and clarify that they now apply only to agricultural leases.

This rule contains new provisions on residential, business, and wind and solar resource leasing that:

• Clarify the procedures for obtaining BIA approval of residential, business, and wind and solar resource lease documents;

• Establish deadlines for BIA to issue decision on complete residential, business, and wind and solar resource lease applications;

• Define what information and documents are necessary for a complete application; and

• Provide greater deference to tribes for tribal land leasing decisions.

II. Summary of Substantive Revisions

This rule makes the procedures for obtaining BIA approval of residential, business, and wind and solar resource lease documents (leases, amendments, assignments, subleases, and leasehold mortgages) as explicit and transparent aspossible. The current regulations provide for the approval of these instruments, but do not specify the approval procedures, leading to possible inconsistencies nationwide, to the detriment of Indian landowners, lessees and lenders.

This rule continues to require Indian landowner consent for leases, consistent with the Indian Long Term Leasing Act and the Indian Land Consolidation Act of 2000 (ILCA), as amended by the American Indian Probate Reform Act (AIPRA). Because ILCA does not apply to tribes in Alaska, the consent requirements for Alaska remain the same as in the previous regulations governing leasing. The regulations also establish the standard for rental rates, providing that leases on tribal land may be approved for the compensation negotiated by the tribe and leases for less than fair market rental may be approved on individually owned Indian land under certain circumstances.

Subpart C, Residential Leases, addresses leasing for single-family homes and housing for public purposes on Indian land. The regulations provide for a 30-day time frame within which BIA must issue a decision on a complete residential lease application. The final rule eliminates the requirement for bonds and insurance for residential leases. Subpart C also includes provisions for enforcement of lease violations.

Subpart D, Business Leases, addresses leasing for business purposes, including: (1) Leases for residential purposes that are not covered in Subpart C; (2) leases for business purposes not covered by Subpart E (wind energy evaluation and wind and solar resource development); (3) leases for religious, educational, recreational, cultural, and other public purposes; and (4) commercial or industrial leases for retail, office, manufacturing, storage, biomass, waste-to-energy, and/or other business purposes. The regulations provide for a 60-day time frame within which BIA must issue a decision on a complete business lease application.

Subpart E, WEELs and WSR Leases, establishes procedures for obtaining BIA review and approval of WEELs and WSR leases. For wind energy, this rule establishes a two-part process whereby developers may obtain BIA approval of a short-term lease for possession of Indian land for the purposes of installation and maintenance of wind evaluation equipment, such as meteorological towers. The WEEL may provide the developer with an option to lease the Indian land for wind energy development purposes. The environmental reviews conducted for the short-term lease, which would evaluate only the impacts of the evaluation equipment, not the full development of the wind project, may be incorporated by reference, as appropriate, into environmental reviews conducted for a lease for full development of the wind project. This two-part process is not necessary for solar resource development because solar resource evaluation does not require possession of the land. The regulations provide for a 20-day time frame within which BIA must issue a decision on a complete WEEL and a 60-day time frame within which BIA must issue a decision on a complete WSR lease application.

Some of the more notable cross-cutting substantive changes include the following.

General Provisions

• Clarifying when BIA approval of a lease is required

• Clarifying what taxes apply in the context of leasing Indian land

• Clarifying the applicability of the regulations

• Clarifying that leases may include a provision giving a preference to qualified tribal members, based on their political affiliation with the tribe

BIA Approval Process

• Eliminating the requirement for BIA approval of permits of Indian land

• Eliminating the requirement for BIA approval of subleases and assignments where certain conditions are met

• Imposing time limits on BIA to act on requests to approve leases, lease assignments, and leasehold mortgages

• Establishing that BIA has 30 days to act on a request to approve a lease amendment or sublease, or the document will be deemed approved

• Establishing that BIA must approve leases, amendments, assignments, leasehold mortgages, and subleases unless it finds a compelling reason not to do so, based on certain specified findings

Compensation and Valuations

• Providing that BIA will defer to the tribe's negotiated value for a lease of tribal land and will not require valuations of tribal land

• Automatically waiving valuation for leases of individually owned land if the individual landowners provide 100 percent consent

• Allowing for BIA waiver of compensation and valuation for residential leases of individually owned land under certain circumstances if the lessee is a co-owner that has been living on the tract for the past 7 years without objection

• Allowing for BIA waiver of valuation for leases where the lessee or tribe will provide infrastructure improvements to the leased premises and BIA determines it is in the best interest of the landowners

• Allowing short-term leases for wind resource evaluation purposes at the value negotiated by the Indian landowners (whether tribal or individual Indians)

• Providing that BIA will defer to the tribe's determination that allowing alternative forms of rental (other than monetary) compensation for tribal land is in its best interest

• Allowing alternative forms of rental (other than monetary) compensation for individually owned Indian land if the if BIA determines it is in the best interest of the Indian landowners

• Allowing market analysis, competitive bidding, and other appropriate types of valuation, in addition to appraisals

• For tribal land, requiring BIA to defer to the tribe's determination that rental reviews and adjustments are not necessary

• For individually owned land, allowing for automatic rental adjustments and restricting the need for reviews of the lease compensation (to determine if an adjustment is needed) to certain circumstances


• Requiring plans of development and schedules for construction of improvements to assist the BIA and Indian landowners in enforcement of diligent development of the leased premises

Direct Pay

• Allowing for direct pay (i.e., to the Indian landowners, rather than to BIA) for residential, business, and wind and solar resource leasing only where there are 10 or fewer landowners, and all landowners consent to direct pay

• Continuing direct pay unless and until 100 percent of the owners agree to discontinue direct pay, but suspending direct pay under certain circumstances

These changes are intended to increase the efficiency and transparency of the BIA approval process for the residential, business, wind energy evaluation, and wind and solar resource leasing of Indian land, support landowner decisions regarding the use of their land, support tribal self-determination, increase flexibility in compensation and valuations, and facilitate management of direct pay. These changes do not affect agricultural leasing.

III. Responses to Comments on the Proposed Rule

Tribal consultation on the proposed leasing rule, published November 29, 2011 (76 FR 73784), occurred during January 2012. We held three consultation sessions on the proposed rule: January 10, 2012, in Seattle, Washington; January 12, 2012, in Palm Springs, California; and January 18, 2012, in Rapid City, South Dakota. The comment deadline was January 30, 2012. We received over 80 written submissions, and received written and oral comments from approximately 50 Indian tribes during this round of tribal consultation, as well as comments from tribal organizations, tribal housing authorities, and tribal corporations. We also received comments from community development financial institutions (CDFIs), tribal members, and members of the public.

The following is a summary of comments received during consultation and the public comment period on the proposed rule, and an explanation of how we addressed those comments in the final rule. We accepted a number of wording changes that are incorporated into the final rule, but may not be specifically mentioned here.


The section numbers in this preamble refer to section numbers in the final rule. We have included a “PR” for “proposed rule” to indicate the corresponding proposed rule section where it differs from the final rule section number and may be helpful to the reader.

A. Overview

Many tribes and tribal organizations stated that they generally supported the proposed rule, and that the proposed rule was a significant improvement over the previous draft (which was released for consultation) because it more accurately reflected the intent of BIA to streamline and expedite the leasing process, advance economic development, and spur renewable energy development. Tribes stated that they supported the steps BIA took in the proposed rule to recognize tribal sovereignty and tribes' achievements in terms of their ability to manage their own affairs on critical leasing issues. Tribes were particularly supportive of provisions for tribal waiver of appraisals, deadlines for BIA action, and BIA's deference to the Indian landowners' determination that the lease is in their best interest.

While tribes supported the proposed rule overall, they had suggestions for improvement, which are summarized below. A tribal organization stated, broadly, that the regulations should better reflect an updated concept of trust responsibility that defers to tribes in financial matters. We have reviewed the regulation to ensure that the final rule requires BIA to defer to tribes in all possible cases, consistent with our trust responsibility.

One tribe suggested we review the regulation to reconsider each and every regulatory burden it imposes. Likewise, another tribe asked that we review the regulation to ensure tribes' sovereign rights are recognized. We followed these recommendations and have deleted regulatory burdens that are not necessary for BIA to meet its statutory and trust responsibilities and have included provisions supporting tribes' sovereign rights.

Several tribes stated that revision of the business leasing regulations was long overdue. Tribes had suggestions for limiting BIA's role in the leasing process to an administrative role by, for example, limiting BIA's independent review of tribal leasing decisions for financial prudence. Another tribe said that tribes should be able to rely on BIA to process lease documents but not make decisions affecting substantive lease contents or negotiations. We have limited BIA's involvement in substantive lease contents, and left lease provisions and issue resolutions to negotiation, to the extent possible and consistent with our trust responsibility.

A few tribes requested deferring finalization of the residential leasing subpart, to allow for further consultation and more time for all comments to be considered. We will discuss these tribes' comments in more detail, below.

Tribes had suggestions for communicating the final rule's changes, including the following:

• Create a Web page dedicated solely to the new leasing regulations including a repository of guidance and informational materials. We are developing a Web site accessible fromwww.bia.govand will populate the Web site with guidance and informational materials as they are developed.

• Provide checklists and sample lease provisions to assist in the lease negotiation process. We will develop checklists and make them available on the Web site.

B. Format of Regulations

A few tribes commented on the format of the regulations. The majority stated that they believe the common provisions of separate subparts should be kept separate because it is more user-friendly. A minority stated that this format results in regulations that are too lengthy and redundant. We retained the separate subparts for user-friendliness.

Several tribes stated that the proposed rule made little distinction between individual Indian landowners and tribes or tribal agencies, and noted that BIA should defer to the tribe and tribal agency and exercise a lesser degree of oversight than for individual Indian landowners. To the extent consistent with the trust responsibility, we treated tribal and individual Indian landowners differently, providing more deference to tribal landowners in the lease approval process and in the lease enforcement process. We highlighted this difference in the final rule by breaking out questions regarding rental compensation and valuation according to whether the lease is of tribal land or individually owned Indian land.

C. Subpart A—General Provisions

We received the following comments on sections within subpart A.

162.002—How the Part Is Subdivided

• Clarify the provision in 162.002 stating that Subpart F (Special Requirements for Certain Reservations) is subject to subparts A and G. In response, we added a sentence to 162.002 to clarify which provisions apply if there is a conflict between Subpart F (or any act of Congress under which a Subpart F lease is made) and Subparts A through G. Note that Subpart F is merely a redesignation of what was Subpart E.

• Explain the effect of deleting the former subpart addressing non-agricultural leases on tribal regulations modeled after that subpart. There will be no effect; the tribal regulations stand independent of Federal regulations.


• “Amendment”—Define this term to include any changes to the terms of a lease approved by BIA under part 162 that are not contemplated by or provided for in the lease during its initial or renewal period. We did not add this definition because it is self-evident.

• “Business day”—Include tribally recognized holidays out of respect for tribal sovereignty and to provide consistency for individuals and businesses dealing with tribes. We determined not to include tribally recognized holidays because the wide variation in tribally recognized holidays would make administration of the Federal regulations unworkable.

• “Court of competent jurisdiction”—Add that nothing in the definition alters preexisting allocations of jurisdiction over any matter as among State, Federal,and tribal courts. While we agree this is true, we determined that explicitly including this in the definition could imply that, where this statement is not made explicitly, preexisting allocations of jurisdiction are altered.

• “Fee interest”—Clarify this definition to state when restrictions on alienation attach, if at all, to tribally acquired fee land. We determined that this request is outside the scope of this rulemaking.

• “Government lands”—Clarify that this definition does not include tribal lands. We incorporated this change.

• “Housing for public purposes”—Clarify that this term includes programs administered or substantially financed by any entity (not just not-for-profit entities) organized for the purpose of developing or improving low income housing using tax credits. We incorporated this change.

• “Immediate family”—Leave this definition to tribes' discretion. We incorporated this change by providing that the definition will apply only in the absence of a tribal law definition.

• “Indian landowner”—Include tribal corporations organized under 25 U.S.C. 477 (“section 17 corporations”) in this definition, to the extent they have the authorization to lease Indian land to third parties. We did not incorporate this change because section 17 corporations are exempt from the requirement to obtain BIA approval of leases under part 162. A few commenters also suggested defining “individual Indian landowner” and “tribal landowner” to emphasize their differences. We determined that these definitions were unnecessary.

• “Inherent Federal function”—See discussion of 162.018, below.

• “Lease”—Add that a lessee's right to possession will limit the landowner's right only to the extent provided in the lease to avoid any possible argument that common law definitions requiring exclusive right of possession be applied to part 162. We incorporated the suggested change.

• “Lease”—Expand the definitions of “lease” and “lessee” to include subleases and assignments from sublessees and assignees. We did not incorporate this change because it would expand the application of the regulations beyond what is intended.

• “Lease document”—Add a definition for this term (the proposed rule used this term without a definition) to expressly include a lease, amendment, assignment, sublease, and leasehold mortgage. We added this definition.

• “LTRO”—Revise to clarify that a tribe contracting or compacting LTRO functions may be included in this definition. We did not make this change because these tribes are already included in the definition, as part of “BIA.”

• “Notice of violation”—Revise to account for situations in which a notice of violation is issued against the Indian landowner/lessor. We did not incorporate this change because BIA's obligation is to the Indian landowner, not to enforce the lease on behalf of the lessee.

• “Orphaned minor”—Revise because the proposed rule's definition inaccurately suggests that every minor without a court-appointed guardian is orphaned. We revised the definition to match the common understanding of this term.

• “Permit”—Revise to clarify that this term does not include tribal grazing permits. Because grazing permits are governed by another CFR part, 25 CFR part 166, this definition does not apply to them; therefore, we determined that no change to this definition is necessary.

• “Single family residence”—Restrict this term to one dwelling unit. We did not revise the definition, but the definition allows tribes to define the term differently. This definition is consistent with the scope of financing available under section 184 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 (12 U.S.C. 1715z-13a). We also added this term to the definition of “housing for public purposes” to clarify that this housing may include a single family residence, rather than just developments. We incorporated a tribal housing authority's suggestion that we add “or other tribal law” to allow tribal law beyond just zoning law to define this term.

• “Sublease”—Revise to indicate that the interest held by the sublessee should be “no greater than” that of the lessee, since the sublessee may hold the same rights as the lessee. We incorporated this change.

• “Tribal law”—Revise to add that the body of non-Federal law is “defined by each tribe.” We did not incorporate this change because it would be redundant, given that the definition clearly establishes that the tribe defines its own body of law.

• “TDHE” (tribally designated housing entity)—Expand to include tribally sponsored or tribally sanctioned not-for-profit entities. We incorporated this requested change. Expand to include a tribal council or other tribal departments fulfilling TDHE services. We did not incorporate this change because a tribal council or tribal department that fulfills the function of a TDHE, but is not separate from the tribe, does not have to obtain a lease of tribal land (the tribe cannot lease to itself) while entities separate from the tribe must obtain a lease of tribal land.

162.004 (PR 162.006)—Applicability to Indian Land and Life Estates

• Clarify how BIA addresses leases of life estates where the land is fractionated. We revised this section to clarify the difference between a life estate that includes all of the interests in a tract, and a life estate of a fractional interest in a tract—including clarifying whose consent is required for the life tenant to lease in each case, and whether BIA approval of the lease is required in each case. Where the life estate covers only a fractional interest in a tract, the life tenant must obtain the consent of the co-owners and BIA approval.

• Restrict BIA services in collecting rents on behalf of a life tenant so that they do not exceed services provided to trust beneficiaries. In response, BIA is not responsible for collecting the rents on behalf of the life tenant, but may where the life tenant's whereabouts are unknown. In these situations, the Trust Fund Accounting System (TFAS) will distribute rent to an account for the life tenant.

• Do not assume that all life estates are held by non-Indians, because tribes use life estates as a form of estate planning for tribal members. The revised regulations clarify that BIA treats life estates the same whether they are held by Indians or non-Indians; BIA's trust responsibility is to the remaindermen.

• Delete provisions requiring lessees to pay life tenants directly, because that requirement exposes the life tenant's rental income to State court judgments; whereas if BIA collected rent on behalf of the life tenant, the rental income would be protected from these judgments by an individual Indian money (IIM) account. While we note this point, the rule allows life tenants to enter into leases without BIA approval, and BIA does not administer such leases on behalf of life tenants. The requirement that lessees pay life tenants directly is consistent with the rights and responsibilities afforded to life tenants in the rule. As stated above, this rule treats life estates the same whether they are held by Indians or non-Indians.

• Reflect Congress's intent to extend BIA's trust responsibility to protect Indian descendants who are life tenants, without removing property from trust. BIA will protect the trust asset, but does not agree that Congress expressed itsintent to extend the fiduciary duty to life tenants.

• Protect remaindermen from a situation where a life tenant enters into a long-term lease for the duration of his or her life and receives up-front payments such that the life tenant enjoys the income to the detriment of the remaindermen. If a life tenant enters into a lease only for the duration of his or her life, he or she is entitled to enjoy the income, whether paid in a lump sum or over time, to the exclusion of the remaindermen. The rule protects remaindermen by making it clear that, upon the death of the life tenant, any lease of a life estate terminates. The remaindermen could evict the life tenant's lessee or negotiate a new lease with new payment terms. If either the lessee or the remainderman believed they had grounds to do so, they could attempt to recoup losses from the life tenant's estate.

162.005 (PR 162.008)—When Lease Is Needed

• Add that an entity using a tribal land assignments or similar instruments and permit holders do not need a lease to possess Indian land. We incorporated this change.

• Exempt owners of a fractional interest from the requirement to obtain a lease from the owners of the other fractional interests in the same tract. We did not incorporate this change. Section 162.005(a)(2) allows the co-owner to use the tract if the other fractional co-owners agree; otherwise, the co-owner must obtain a lease from the other fractional owners to ensure that they consent (if leased, rent may not be necessary, as this situation is one in which fair market rental may be waived). We disagree with the commenters' claim that each owner has full rights to use the property in any manner, because one co-owner does not have the right to exclude the others without their consent. For this reason, we reject the commenters' claim that requiring a lease is diminishing the property rights of each co-owner by requiring him or her to pay rent for use of his or her own property.

• Clarify how 162.005(a)(2), which states that co-owners may agree to allow one co-owner to use the tract without a lease, will work and when a lease, rather than an informal agreement, is required. While a lease documenting the agreement is preferable, the rule provides for maximum flexibility by allowing for informal agreements. A lease is required if all the co-owners cannot agree to an informal agreement. Section 162.005(a)(2) is consistent with existing regulations, allowing for owners' use when 100 percent of the landowners agree. If not all 100 percent agree, then a lease is required. The informal agreement may continue throughout the lives of the landowners, or for whatever period they agreed to, until they no longer agree.

• Incorporate the current language of 162.102(d) (regarding section 17 corporations) into the new subpart A. This provision is incorporated at 162.005(b)(3).

162.006 (PR 162.007)—Land Use Agreements Subject to This Part

• Clarify whether the regulations apply to those tribes with tribe-specific statutory authority for leasing. We added provisions to 162.006 to clarify that tribes leasing Indian land under a special act of Congress that authorizes leasing without BIA approval are not subject to part 162.

• Clarify that tribes with special Federal statutory authority to lease under tribal regulations approved by the Secretary may adopt any of the part 162 regulations subject to Secretarial approval of the amendment to tribal regulations. We agree this is the case.

• Make Federal approval requirements, but not recording and enforcement provisions, inapplicable to leases issued by section 17 corporations. We clarified in 162.006 that leases of tribal land issued by section 17 corporations under their charters are not subject to the regulations (including enforcement provisions) for leases of 25 years or less, but the leases must be recorded.

• State that a land use agreement that encumbers tribal land and is authorized by 25 U.S.C. 81 is governed by 25 CFR part 84, rather than, as the proposed rule stated, that a land use agreement that encumbers tribal land is governed by 25 U.S.C 81. We incorporated this change.

• Correct the erroneous suggestion in the table in 162.006 that all land use agreements that can be called by a certain name are governed by the corresponding CFR parts, because the statutory authority determines what the land use agreement is, and what the corresponding CFR part is. We considered adding the statutory authorities to this table but determined that it would be too voluminous and ultimately unhelpful. Instead, we clarified the statutory authorities for part 162 leases and provide that other statutory authority governs the agreements in the table.

• Add that tribal laws and customs must be deferred to in determining whether a use is “temporary” under a “tribal land assignment.” We addressed this comment by deleting the word “temporary,” because a tribal land assignment may be for any appropriate period of time under tribal law.

• Clarify whether declarations of tribal land set-asides must be submitted to BIA for a determination that they are not leases, as permits must. Tribal land assignments and similar instruments allowing use of tribal land cannot be subject to part 162, and therefore do not need to be submitted to BIA for BIA's file or a determination that they are not leases.

• Clarify that tribal “dedications to a public use” and other means of setting aside tribal land for particular purposes do not require an approved lease under this part. Instruments such as these would fall under “tribal land assignments and similar instruments authorizing uses of tribal land,” which are not subject to part 162.

• Clarify the applicability of the regulations to section 17 corporations. We have added provisions to 162.006 to clarify that part 162 does not apply to leases of tribal land by a section 17 corporation under its charter to a third party for a period not to exceed 25 years, and to 162.005 to clarify that a section 17 corporation managing or having the power to manage tribal land directly under its Federal charter or under a tribal authorization (not under a lease from the Indian tribe) does not need a lease under part 162 to do so. Several tribes stated that they disagree with the exemption for section 17 corporations leasing to third parties, because tribes would have to obtain BIA approval to lease to a third party. This exemption is established in 25 U.S.C. 477 and applies to BIA approval of any lease document that would otherwise fall under part 162.

162.007 (PR 162.004)—Permits

Tribes nearly unanimously supported the proposed rule's removal of the requirement to obtain BIA approval of permits. The tribes stated that eliminating BIA permit approval increases tribal self-determination and streamlines the process. Some tribes also stated that requirements for the landowners to follow relevant environmental and cultural resource laws, and for BIA to confirm the document is a permit, protect Indian land without burdening landowners with an onerous approval process. In addition, we received the following comments:

• Reconcile 162.007's explanation as to what qualifies as a “permit” with the grazing regulations. Because grazing permits are issued under a separate statutory authority and are governed byseparate regulations at 25 CFR part 166, the description in part 162 does not affect grazing permits.

• Clarify that the requirement that permits comply with applicable environmental laws does not mean the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) applies. Because there is no Federal approval of permits, neither NEPA nor Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act applies to permits.

• Add a timeline or process by which BIA “confirms” whether a document is a permit or a lease. We incorporated this change by adding a 10-day timeline by which BIA may notify the Indian landowners that a lease is required because the permit grants an interest in Indian land.

• Clarify in the introductory paragraph to the table that the characteristics are merely “examples of common characteristics,” to ensure that permits that lack one or more characteristics are not necessarily excluded from being considered a permit. We incorporated this change.

• Delete the permit characteristic “does not grant an interest in Indian land” because permits typically grant non-possessory use rights, which are, in effect, an “interest.” BIA disagrees that a non-possessory use privilege is a “legal interest” in the Indian land. For this reason, we did not make the requested change.

• Narrow the permit characteristic, “unlimited access by others,” because it is too broad. Tribal members retain rights of access on permitted lands, including hunting privileges, cultural and spiritual use access, and easements. We revised this to clarify that a permittee has a “non-possessory right of access.”

• Clarify that BIA will no longer police compliance with permits or collect and distribute permit payments, and allow landowners to opt-in or opt-out of BIA approval for permits. BIA understands this is a significant change for some areas that heavily rely on permits. Once this final rule is effective, the landowner will be responsible for collecting permit payments, rather than BIA. BIA will not collect permit income from permittees, and BIA will not distribute permit income to Indian landowners. If there is a dispute regarding the permit or whether the permittees have made timely payments, the Indian landowners' remedy is with a court of competent jurisdiction. We added a provision to clarify that BIA will not administer or enforce permits.

• Limit tribes' ability to establish compensation and conditions to prevent permitting from being a separate revenue opportunity for tribes beyond leases and rights-of-way. BIA did not incorporate this change because tribal landowners have the right to receive compensation for granting access through a permit, and tribal landowners may establish whatever compensation they like.

• Clarify whether 162.007 allows BIA to grant permits on tribal land, without tribal approval. The final 162.007 does not allow BIA to grant permits on tribal land, only on U.S. Government land covered by part 162.

162.008 (PR 162.005)—Applicability to Documents Submitted Before Effective Date

• Clarify that those leases that were submitted to BIA before the effective date of the rule, but not approved by BIA before the effective date of the rule, are governed by the rules in effect at the time of the submission. We reworded 162.008 to clarify that this is the case.

• Clarify what version of the regulations will apply to leases approved before the effective date of the rule. We reworded 162.008 to clarify that new regulations will apply to leases approved before the effective date of the rule, except that where the provisions of the lease conflict with the provisions of the regulation, the provisions of the lease will govern. Likewise, options to renew in leases approved by BIA before the effective date of the final rule will continue to be governed by the lease terms. Renewals after the effective date of the final rule of leases that were approved by BIA before the effective date of the final rule will not have to contain the final rule's mandatory lease provisions.

• Add a qualifying clause in the beginning of 162.008 stating that it applies “except as provided in 162.006” (“To what land use agreements does this part apply?”) for clarity. We incorporated this change.

• Delete the provision in 162.008 stating that BIA has the right to amend the regulations at any time, because it may create uncertainty. BIA accepted the request to delete this provision since BIA retains the right to amend through the Administrative Procedure Act public notice and comment process, regardless of whether this right is stated in the regulations.

• Address the rule's applicability to leases issued by section 17 corporations that are exempt from Federal approval. As stated below, we clarified in 162.006 that part 162 does not apply to these leases where the term is 25 years or less.

• Address the rule's applicability to leases that a tribe or tribal corporation is obligated to issue upon exercise of a legally binding option to lease on the effective date of the new rules. The fact that a party is obligated to issue a lease will not change the applicability of the regulations.

162.009 (PR N/A)—Approval of Subleasehold Mortgages (New Section)

• We added a new section to clarify whether subleasehold mortgages require BIA approval, in response to comments on subleases and leasehold mortgages.

162.010 (PR 162.009)—How To Obtain a Lease

• Narrow 162.010 so that only a tribe may submit a lease to BIA for approval. We did not add this restriction because a lease of Indian land must be signed by the Indian landowners (or the BIA on behalf of landowners in limited circumstances) and the lessee. BIA will accept the lease document from either the prospective lessee or the Indian landowner.

162.011 (PR 162.010)—Identifying and Contacting Indian Landowners

• Require prospective lessees to contact tribes directly, rather than going through BIA first in 162.011. We addressed this comment by narrowing application of this section to individual Indian landowners.

• Add language to this section requiring the prospective lessee to provide a written explanation of the need for obtaining Indian landowner information. We added this requirement.

162.013 (PR 162.012)—Consent

One tribe submitted extensive comments regarding its situation, wherein tribal members constructed homes without a lease so long as the member had a fractional interest in the tract. Any person who owns a fractional interest in a tract must obtain consent from all of the other owners (co-owners) of fractional interests in that tract in order to possess that tract without a lease, or must obtain consent from the co-owners representing the appropriate percentage of ownership in the tract to lease the tract. See 162.005(a) (PR 162.008(a)). Where a lease is required, and consent to lease cannot be obtained within 90 days, BIA may issue a lease under paragraph 162.013(c)(6) (PR 162.012(c)(6)). One Alaska tribe with a unique situation stated that BIA should add a provision to part 162 addressing consent requirements specifically for that tribe. Because the Indian Land Consolidation Act (ILCA) and its consent provisions do not apply to Alaska, we were unable to incorporate this requested change.

In addition, we received the following comments:

• Clarify that a section 17 corporation may consent to a lease. Because part 162 does not apply to section 17 corporations granting others the right to possess Indian land, we did not incorporate this change.

• A few tribes noted that where the consent of the landowners of 100 percent of the interests is required, it is difficult to obtain a lease. Under ILCA, if there are one to five landowners in a tract, then the owners of 90 percent of the interests in that tract must consent. In some cases, depending on the percentage of interests owned by each, this may mean that all of the landowners must consent. BIA recognizes the practical problems that are caused in those cases where all landowners must consent, but is constrained by statutory parameters.

• Clarify what tribal consent is needed for tribal lands and for fractionated lands where individual landowners owning the required percentage of interests under the ILCA have consented. If the tract is one in which 100 percent of the interests are owned by the tribe, the tribe must be a party to the lease of tribal land, and will need to authorize (i.e., consent to) the lease. If the tract is fractionated, and less than 100 percent of the interests are owned by the tribe and the lease is authorized by the Native American Housing and Self-Determination Act (NAHASDA), tribal consent is still required. If the lease for a fractionated tract is entered into under another statutory authority, then tribal consent is not needed; Congress provided for this situation in stating that where a tribe did not consent to a lease of fractionated land, it is not considered a party to the lease. See 25 U.S.C. 2218(d)(2).

• Revise the consent provisions to apply to tribes, in addition to individual Indian landowners. Because the term “Indian landowners” includes both tribal landowners and individual Indian landowners, we did not revise these provisions. Another tribe asked that we add “individual” before “Indian landowner” everywhere the rule discusses consent. We did not incorporate this change because a tribal landowner must also consent to a lease of its land.

• Limit the parties' ability to allow for “deemed consent” in a lease to individual landowners. The regulations limit deemed consent lease provisions to individual Indian landowners only. One tribe requested adding tribes to allow for tribes to be deemed to have consented. We did not incorporate this change out of respect for tribal sovereignty and because other comments requested that it be limited to individual Indian landowners.

• Replace the term “consent” with “grant” because the landowners actually “grant” the lease. While it is true that landowners grant the lease, we adopted the language of ILCA in referring to “consent” to avoid potential confusion where there are several owners of fractional interests and one “grants” the lease but the others do not.

• Delete paragraph (c)(6), which empowers BIA to consent to a lease if the landowners have been unable to reach an agreement for 3 months, because it favors the prospective lessee rather than the landowner where a non-consenting landowner has legitimate reasons for not consenting. We did not delete this paragraph because it implements statutory authority (25 U.S.C. 380) and BIA will determine whether the lease is in the best interest of the landowners before exercising this authority.

162.014 (PR 162.013)—What Laws Apply to Leases

• Clarify when tribal laws apply to leases under part 162, and when BIA may waive part 162 due to conflicting or inconsistent tribal law. We revised this section by incorporating the tribes' suggested language to allow tribal laws to supersede or modify part 162 provisions, as long as certain conditions are fulfilled (e.g., the tribe notifies BIA of the modifying or superseding effect).

• Revise the proposed rule's language about when State law would be applied because a Federal court could read the proposed rule's provisions as providing authority for a court to apply State law. We revised the section to clarify that State law may apply where a Federal court made it applicable in the absence of Federal or tribal law. Another concern was that tribes should have the flexibility to apply State law in certain circumstances. The final rule's language clarifies that a tribe may apply State law.

• Clarify that the phrase “parties to a specific lease may subject it to State or local law in the absence * * *” does not give individuals the authority to establish that the State or locality has jurisdiction. We added language to clarify that the individuals will be subjecting only their lease to this jurisdiction.

• Add provisions that require BIA to recognize and acknowledge tribal laws regulating activities on land under a lease, including land use, environmental protection, and historic preservation, as in the 2004 draft regulations. The additional language in 162.016 regarding the applicability of tribal law covers this.

162.015 (PR N/A)—Tribal Employment Preference Laws (New Section)

• Add language recognizing the applicability of tribal preference laws to lessees. To clarify this applicability, we added a new section 162.015. Tribe-specific employment preferences as provided in these regulations are political preferences, not based on race or national origin. They run to members of a particular federally-recognized tribe or tribes whose trust or restricted lands are at issue and with whom the United States holds a political relationship. These preferences are rationally connected to the fulfillment of the federal government's trust relationship with the tribe that holds equitable or restricted title to the land at issue. These preferences also further the United States' political relationship with Indian tribes. Tribes have a sovereign interest in achieving and maintaining economic self-sufficiency, and the federal government has an established policy of encouraging tribal self-governance and tribal economic self-sufficiency. A tribe-specific preference in accord with tribal law ensures that the economic development of a tribe's land inures to the tribe and its members. Tribal sovereign authority, which carries with it the right to exclude non-members, allows the tribe to regulate economic relationships on its reservation between itself and non-members. See, generally,Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionv.Peabody Western Coal Company,No. 2:01-cv-01050 JWS (D. Ariz., Oct. 18, 2012) (upholding tribal preferences in leases of coal held in trust for the Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe, but also citing with approval the use of such preferences in business leases). These regulations implement the established policy of encouraging tribal self-governance and tribal economic self-sufficiency by explicitly allowing for tribal employment preferences.

162.016 (PR 162.014)—BIA Compliance With Tribal Laws

• Restrict when BIA will defer to tribal law by changing “making decisions regarding leases” to “making the decision to approve or disapprove the proposed lease.” We did not incorporate this change because BIA will defer to tribal law in decisions regarding leases beyond just the approval decision.

162.017 (PR N/A)—What Taxes Apply (New Section)

All tribal commenters supported proposed provisions clarifying that improvements on trust or restricted land are not taxable by non-tribal entities; however, many tribes requested clarification regarding other taxation arising in the context of leasing Indian land. For this reason, we separated this topic into its own section and moved it from the residential, business, and WSR leasing subparts to subpart A. This section now addresses not only taxation of improvements on leased Indian land, but also taxation of the leasehold or possessory interest, and taxation of activities (e.g., excise or severance taxes) occurring or services performed on leased Indian land.

Tribes have inherent plenary and exclusive power over their citizens and territory, which has been subject to limitations imposed by Federal law, including but not limited to Supreme Court decisions, but otherwise may not be transferred except by the tribe affirmatively granting such power.See, Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law,2012 Edition, § 4.01[1][b]. The U.S. Constitution, as well as treaties entered into between the United States and Indian tribes, executive orders, statutes, and other Federal laws recognize tribes' inherent authority and power of self-government.See, Worcesterv.Georgia,31 U.S. 515 (1832);U.S.v.Winans,198 U.S. 371, 381 (1905)(“[T]he treaty was not a grant of rights to the Indians, but a grant of rights from them—a reservation of those not granted.”);Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law,2012 Edition, § 4.01[1][c] (“Illustrative statutes * * * include [but are not limited to] the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, the Indian Financing Act of 1974, the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 * * * [and] the Tribe Self-Governance Act * * * In addition, congressional recognition of tribal authority is [also] reflected in statutes requiring that various administrative acts of… the Department of the Interior be carried out only with the consent of the Indian tribe, its head of government, or its council.”);Id.(“Every recent president has affirmed the governmental status of Indian nations and their special relationship to the United States”).

With a backdrop of “traditional notions of Indian self-government,” Federal courts apply a balancing test to determine whether State taxation of non-Indians engaging in activity or owning property on the reservation is preempted.White Mountain Apache Tribev.Bracker,448 U.S. 136, 143 (1980). TheBrackerbalancing test requires a particularized examination of the relevant State, Federal, and tribal interests. In the case of leasing on Indian lands, the Federal and tribal interests are very strong.

The Federal statutes and regulations governing leasing on Indian lands (as well as related statutes and regulations concerning business activities, including leases, by Indian traders) occupy and preempt the field of Indian leasing. The Federal statutory scheme for Indian leasing is comprehensive, and accordingly precludes State taxation. In addition, the Federal regulatory scheme is pervasive and leaves no room for State law. Federal regulations cover all aspects of leasing:

• Whether a party needs a lease to authorize possession of Indian land;

• How to obtain a lease;

• How a prospective lessee identifies and contacts Indian landowners to negotiate a lease;

• Consent requirements for a lease and who is authorized to consent;

• What laws apply to leases;

• Employment preference for tribal members;

• Access to the leased premises by roads or other infrastructure;

• Combining tracts with different Indian landowners in a single lease;

• Trespass;

• Emergency action by us if Indian land is threatened;

• Appeals;

• Documentation required in approving, administering, and enforcing leases;

• Lease duration;

• Mandatory lease provisions;

• Construction, ownership, and removal of permanent improvements, and plans of development;

• Legal descriptions of the leased land;

• Amount, time, form, and recipient of rental payments (including non-monetary rent), and rental reviews or adjustments;

• Valuations;

• Performance bond and insurance requirements;

• Secretarial approval process, including timelines, and criteria for approval of leases;

• Recordation;

• Consent requirements, Secretarial approval process, criteria for approval, and effective date for lease amendments, lease assignments, subleases, leasehold mortgages, and subleasehold mortgages;

• Investigation of compliance with a lease;

• Negotiated remedies;

• Late payment charges or special fees for delinquent payments;

• Allocation of insurance and other payment rights;

• Secretarial cancellation of a lease for violations; and

• Abandonment of the leased premises.

The purposes of residential, business, and WSR leasing on Indian land are to promote Indian housing and to allow Indian landowners to use their land profitably for economic development, ultimately contributing to tribal well-being and self-government. The legislative history of section 415 demonstrates that Congress intended to maximize income to Indian landowners and encourage all types of economic development on Indian lands.SeeSen. Rpt. No. 84-375 at 2 (May 24, 1955). Assessment of State and local taxes would obstruct Federal policies supporting tribal economic development, self-determination, and strong tribal governments. State and local taxation also threatens substantial tribal interests in effective tribal government, economic self-sufficiency, and territorial autonomy. The leasing of trust or restricted land is an instrumental tool in fulfilling “the traditional notions of sovereignty and [] the federal policy of encouraging tribal independence.”Bracker,448 U.S. at 145 (citingMcClanahanv.Arizona State Tax Comm'n,411 U.S. 164, 174-75 (1973)). The leasing of trust or restricted lands facilitates the implementation of the policy objectives of tribal governments through vital residential, economic, and governmental services. Tribal sovereignty and self-government are substantially promoted by leasing under these regulations, which require significant deference, to the maximum extent possible, to tribal determinations that a lease provision or requirement is in its best interest.SeeJoseph P. Kalt and Joseph William Singer, The Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy & The Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, Joint Occasional Papers on Native Affairs,Myths and Realities of Tribal Sovereignty: The Law and Economics of Indian Self-Rule,No. 2004-03 (2004) (“economically and culturally, sovereignty is a key lever that provides American Indian communities with institutions and practices that can protect and promote their citizens interests and well-being [and] [w]ithout that lever, the social, cultural, and economic viability of American Indian communities and, perhaps, even identities is untenable over the long run”).

Another important aspect of tribal sovereignty and self-governance is taxation. Permanent improvements andactivities on the leased premises and the leasehold interest itself may be subject to taxation by the Indian tribe with jurisdiction over the leased property. The Supreme Court has recognized that “[t]he power to tax is an essential attribute of Indian sovereignty because it is a necessary instrument of self-government and territorial management.”Merrionv.Jicarilla Apache Tribe,455 U.S. 130, 137 (1982). State and local taxation of lessee-owned improvements, activities conducted by the lessee, and the leasehold interest also has the potential to increase project costs for the lessee and decrease the funds available to the lessee to make rental payments to the Indian landowner. Increased project costs can impede a tribe's ability to attract non-Indian investment to Indian lands where such investment and participation are critical to the vitality of tribal economies. An increase in project costs is especially damaging to economic development on Indian lands given the difficulty Indian tribes and individuals face in securing access to capital. A 2001 study by the U.S. Department of the Treasury found that Indians' lack of access to capital and financial services is a key barrier to economic advancement. U.S. Dept. of the Treasury, Community Development and Financial Institutions Fund, The Report of the Native American Lending Study at 2 (Nov. 2001). Along the same line, 66 percent of survey respondents stated that private equity is difficult or impossible to obtain for Indian business owners.Id.

In many cases, tribes contractually agree to reimburse the non-Indian lessee for the expense of the tax, resulting in the economic burden of the tax ultimately being borne directly by the tribe. Accordingly, the very possibility of an additional State or local tax has a chilling effect on potential lessees as well as the tribe that as a result might refrain from exercising its own sovereign right to impose a tribal tax to support its infrastructure needs. Such dual taxation can make some projects less economically attractive, further discouraging development in Indian country.