Daily Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of the Federal Government
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically through
For the purpose of this document, we are giving meaning to certain words or initials as follows:
i. The words or initials
ii. The initials
iii. The initials
iv. The initials
v. The initials
vi. The initials
vii. The initials
viii. The initials
ix. The initials
x. The initials
xi. The initials
xii. The initials
xiii. The initial
xiv. The initials
xv. The initials
xvi. The words
xvii. The initials
xviii. The initials
xix. The initials
xx. The initials
xxi. The initials
xxii. The initials
xxiii. The initials
xxiv. The initials
xxv. The initials
xxvi. The initials
xxvii. The initials
xxviii. The initials
xxix. The initials
xxx. The initials
xxxi. The initials
xxxii. The initials
xxxiii. The initials
xxxiv. The initials
xxxv. The initials
xxxvi. The initials
xxxvii. The initials
xxxviii. The initials
xxxix. The initials
xl. The initials
xli. The initials
xlii. The initials
xliii. The initials
xliv. The initials
xlv. The initials
xlvi. The initials
xlvii. The initials
xlviii. The initials
xlix. The initials
l. The initials
li. The initials
lii. The initials
liii. The initials
liv. The words
The CAA requires each state to develop plans, referred to as SIPs, to meet various air quality requirements. A state must submit its SIP and SIP revisions to us for approval. Once approved, a SIP is enforceable by EPA and citizens under the CAA, also known as being federally enforceable. If a state fails to make a required SIP submittal or if we find that a state's required submittal is incomplete or unapprovable, then we must promulgate a FIP to fill this regulatory gap. CAA section 110(c)(1). This action involves the requirement that states have SIPs that address regional haze.
Few states submitted a regional haze SIP prior to the December 17, 2007 deadline, and on January 15, 2009, EPA found that 37 states, including Wyoming,
States in the west were given the option to meet the requirements of the RHR either under 40 CFR 51.309 or 40 CFR 51.308. Wyoming chose to adopt the requirements of 40 CFR 51.309. Section 309 requires states to adopt regional haze strategies that are based on recommendations from the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission for protecting the 16 Class I areas in the Colorado Plateau area, including a sulfur dioxide (SO
In a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado, environmental groups sued EPA for our failure to take timely action with respect to the regional haze requirements of the CAA and our regulations.
As a result of these lawsuits, we entered into a consent decree. The consent decree requires that we sign a notice of final rulemaking addressing the regional haze requirements for Wyoming by January 10, 2014.
Regional haze is visibility impairment that is produced by a multitude of sources and activities which are located across a broad geographic area and emit fine particles (PM
Data from the existing visibility monitoring network, the “Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments” (IMPROVE) monitoring network, show that visibility impairment caused by air pollution occurs virtually all the time at most national park and wilderness areas. The average visual range
In section 169A of the 1977 Amendments to the CAA, Congress created a program for protecting visibility in the nation's national parks and wilderness areas. This section of the CAA establishes as a national goal the “prevention of any future, and the remedying of any existing, impairment of visibility in mandatory Class I Federal areas
Congress added section 169B to the CAA in 1990 to address regional haze issues. EPA promulgated a rule to address regional haze on July 1, 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1, 1999), codified at 40 CFR part 51, subpart P. The RHR revised the existing visibility regulations to integrate into the regulation provisions addressing regional haze impairment and established a comprehensive visibility protection program for Class I areas. The requirements for regional haze, found at 40 CFR 51.308 and 51.309, are included in EPA's visibility protection regulations at 40 CFR 51.300-51.309. Some of the main elements of the regional haze requirements are summarized in section III of this preamble. The requirement to submit a regional haze SIP applies to all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the Virgin Islands. 40 CFR 51.308(b) requires states to submit the first implementation plan addressing regional haze visibility impairment no later than December 17, 2007.
Few states submitted a regional haze SIP prior to the December 17, 2007 deadline, and on January 15, 2009, EPA found that 37 states (including Wyoming), the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands, had failed to submit SIPs addressing the regional haze requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a required submission, EPA is required to promulgate a FIP within two years unless the state submits a SIP and the Agency approves it within the two-year period. CAA section110(c)(1).
Successful implementation of the regional haze program will require long-term regional coordination among states, tribal governments, and various federal agencies. As noted above, pollution affecting the air quality in Class I areas can be transported over long distances, even hundreds of kilometers. Therefore, to effectively address the problem of visibility impairment in Class I areas, states need to develop strategies in coordination with one another, taking into account the effect of emissions from one jurisdiction on the air quality in another.
Because the pollutants that lead to regional haze can originate from sources located across broad geographic areas, EPA has encouraged the states and tribes across the United States to address visibility impairment from a regional perspective. Five regional planning organizations (RPOs) were developed to address regional haze and related issues. The RPOs first evaluated technical information to better understand how their states and tribes impact Class I areas across the country, and then pursued the development of regional strategies to reduce emissions of pollutants that lead to regional haze.
The Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) RPO is a collaborative effort of state governments, tribal governments, and various federal agencies established to initiate and coordinate activities associated with the management of regional haze, visibility and other air quality issues in the western United States. WRAP member state governments include: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Tribal members include Campo Band of Kumeyaay Indians, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Cortina Indian Rancheria, Hopi Tribe, Hualapai Nation of the Grand Canyon, Native Village of Shungnak, Nez Perce Tribe, Northern Cheyenne Tribe, Pueblo of Acoma, Pueblo of San Felipe, and Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of Fort Hall.
The following is a summary of the requirements of the RHR. See 40 CFR 51.308 for further detail regarding the requirements of the rule.
Regional haze SIPs must assure reasonable progress towards the national goal of achieving natural visibility conditions in Class I areas. Section 169A of the CAA and EPA's implementing regulations require states to establish long-term strategies for making reasonable progress toward meeting this goal. Implementation plans must also give specific attention to certain stationary sources that were in
The RHR establishes the deciview as the principal metric or unit for expressing visibility.
The deciview is used in expressing RPGs (which are interim visibility goals towards meeting the national visibility goal), defining baseline, current, and natural conditions, and tracking changes in visibility. The regional haze SIPs must contain measures that ensure “reasonable progress” toward the national goal of preventing and remedying visibility impairment in Class I areas caused by anthropogenic air pollution by reducing anthropogenic emissions that cause regional haze. The national goal is a return to natural conditions, i.e., anthropogenic sources of air pollution would no longer impair visibility in Class I areas.
To track changes in visibility over time at each of the 156 Class I areas covered by the visibility program (40 CFR 81.401-437), and as part of the process for determining reasonable progress, states must calculate the degree of existing visibility impairment at each Class I area at the time of each regional haze SIP submittal and periodically review progress every five years midway through each 10-year implementation period. To do this, the RHR requires states to determine the degree of impairment (in deciviews) for the average of the 20 percent least impaired (“best”) and 20 percent most impaired (“worst”) visibility days over a specified time period at each of their Class I areas. In addition, states must also develop an estimate of natural visibility conditions for the purpose of comparing progress toward the national goal. Natural visibility is determined by estimating the natural concentrations of pollutants that cause visibility impairment and then calculating total light extinction based on those estimates. We have provided guidance to states regarding how to calculate baseline, natural and current visibility conditions.
For the first regional haze SIPs that were due by December 17, 2007, “baseline visibility conditions” were the starting points for assessing “current” visibility impairment. Baseline visibility conditions represent the degree of visibility impairment for the 20 percent least impaired days and 20 percent most impaired days for each calendar year from 2000 to 2004. Using monitoring data for 2000 through 2004, states are required to calculate the average degree of visibility impairment for each Class I area, based on the average of annual values over the five-year period. The comparison of initial baseline visibility conditions to natural visibility conditions indicates the amount of improvement necessary to attain natural visibility, while the future comparison of baseline conditions to the then current conditions will indicate the amount of progress made. In general, the 2000-2004 baseline period is considered the time from which improvement in visibility is measured.
The vehicle for ensuring continuing progress towards achieving the natural visibility goal is the submission of a series of regional haze SIPs from the states that establish two RPGs (i.e., two distinct goals, one for the “best” and one for the “worst” days) for every Class I area for each (approximately) 10-year implementation period.
In establishing RPGs, states are required to consider the following factors established in section 169A of the CAA and in our RHR at 40 CFR 51.308(d)(1)(i)(A): (1) The costs of compliance; (2) the time necessary for compliance; (3) the energy and non-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; and (4) the remaining useful life of any potentially affected sources. States must demonstrate in their SIPs how these factors are considered when selecting the RPGs for the best and worst days for each applicable Class I area. In setting the RPGs, states must also consider the rate of progress needed to reach natural visibility conditions by 2064 (referred to as the “uniform rate of progress” (URP) or the “glidepath”) and the emission reduction measures needed to achieve that rate of progress over the 10-year period of the SIP. Uniform progress towards achievement of natural conditions by the year 2064 represents a rate of progress, which states are to use for analytical comparison to the amount of progress they expect to achieve. In setting RPGs, each state with one or more Class I areas (“Class I state”) must also consult with potentially “contributing states,” i.e., other nearby states with emission sources that may be affecting visibility impairment at the state's Class I areas. 40 CFR 51.308(d)(1)(iv). In determining whether a state's goals for visibility improvement provide for reasonable progress toward natural visibility conditions, EPA is required to evaluate the demonstrations developed by the state pursuant to paragraphs 40 CFR 51.308(d)(1)(i) and (d)(1)(ii). 40 CFR 51.308(d)(1)(iii).
Section 169A of the CAA directs states to evaluate the use of retrofit controls at certain larger, often uncontrolled, older stationary sources in order to address visibility impacts from these sources. Specifically, section 169A(b)(2)(A) of the CAA requires states to revise their SIPs to contain such measures as may be necessary to make reasonable progress towards the natural visibility goal, including a requirement that certain categories of existing major
On July 6, 2005, EPA published the
The process of establishing BART emission limitations can be logically broken down into three steps: First, states identify those sources which meet the definition of “BART-eligible source” set forth in 40 CFR 51.301;
States must address all visibility-impairing pollutants emitted by a source in the BART determination process. The most significant visibility impairing pollutants are SO
Under the BART Guidelines, states may select an exemption threshold value for their BART modeling, below which a BART-eligible source would not be expected to cause or contribute to visibility impairment in any Class I area. The state must document this exemption threshold value in the SIP and must state the basis for its selection of that value. Any source with emissions that model above the threshold value would be subject to a BART determination review. The BART Guidelines acknowledge varying circumstances affecting different Class I areas. States should consider the number of emission sources affecting the Class I areas at issue and the magnitude of the individual sources' impacts. Any exemption threshold set by the state should not be higher than 0.5 deciview. 40 CFR part 51, appendix Y, section III.A.1.
In their SIPs, states must identify the sources that are subject-to-BART and document their BART control determination analyses for such sources. In making their BART determinations, section 169A(g)(2) of the CAA requires that states consider the following factors when evaluating potential control technologies: (1) The costs of compliance; (2) the energy and non-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution control technology in use at the source; (4) the remaining useful life of the source; and (5) the degree of improvement in visibility which may reasonably be anticipated to result from the use of such technology.
A regional haze SIP must include source-specific BART emission limits and compliance schedules for each source subject-to-BART. Once a state has made its BART determination, the BART controls must be installed and in operation as expeditiously as practicable, but no later than five years after the date of EPA approval of the regional haze SIP. CAA section 169(g)(4) and 40 CFR 51.308(e)(1)(iv). In addition to what is required by the RHR, general SIP requirements mandate that the SIP must also include all regulatory requirements related to monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting for the BART controls on the source. See e.g. CAA section 110(a). As noted above, the RHR allows states to implement an alternative program in lieu of BART so long as the alternative program can be demonstrated to achieve greater reasonable progress toward the national visibility goal than would BART.
Consistent with the requirement in section 169A(b) of the CAA that states include in their regional haze SIP a 10 to 15-year strategy for making reasonable progress, section 51.308(d)(3) of the RHR requires that states include a LTS in their regional haze SIPs. The LTS is the compilation of all control measures a state will use during the implementation period of the specific SIP submittal to meet applicable RPGs. The LTS must include “enforceable emissions limitations, compliance schedules, and other measures as necessary to achieve the reasonable progress goals” for all Class I areas within, or affected by emissions from, the state. 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3).
When a state's emissions are reasonably anticipated to cause or contribute to visibility impairment in a Class I area located in another state, the RHR requires the impacted state to coordinate with the contributing states in order to develop coordinated emissions management strategies. 40 CFR 51.308(d)(3)(i). In such cases, the contributing state must demonstrate that it has included, in its SIP, all measures necessary to obtain its share of the emission reductions needed to meet the RPGs for the Class I area.
States should consider all types of anthropogenic sources of visibility impairment in developing their long-term strategy, including stationary, minor, mobile, and area sources. At a minimum, states must describe how each of the following seven factors listed below are taken into account in developing their LTS: (1) Emission reductions due to ongoing air pollution control programs, including measures to address RAVI; (2) measures to mitigate the impacts of construction activities; (3) emissions limitations and schedules for compliance to achieve the RPG; (4) source retirement and replacement schedules; (5) smoke management techniques for agricultural and forestry management purposes including plans as currently exist within the state for these purposes; (6) enforceability of emissions limitations and control measures; and (7) the anticipated net
As part of the RHR, EPA revised 40 CFR 51.306(c) regarding the LTS for RAVI to require that the RAVI plan must provide for a periodic review and SIP revision not less frequently than every three years until the date of submission of the state's first plan addressing regional haze visibility impairment, which was due December 17, 2007, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.308(b) and (c). On or before this date, the state must revise its plan to provide for review and revision of a coordinated LTS for addressing RAVI and regional haze, and the state must submit the first such coordinated LTS with its first regional haze SIP. Future coordinated LTS's, and periodic progress reports evaluating progress towards RPGs, must be submitted consistent with the schedule for SIP submission and periodic progress reports set forth in 40 CFR 51.308(f) and 51.308(g), respectively. The periodic review of a state's LTS must report on both regional haze and RAVI impairment and must be submitted to EPA as a SIP revision.
Section 51.308(d)(4) of the RHR includes the requirement for a monitoring strategy for measuring, characterizing, and reporting of regional haze visibility impairment that is representative of all mandatory Class I Federal areas within the state. The strategy must be coordinated with the monitoring strategy required in section 51.305 for RAVI. Compliance with this requirement may be met through “participation” in the IMPROVE network, i.e., review and use of monitoring data from the network. The monitoring strategy is due with the first regional haze SIP, and it must be reviewed every five years. The monitoring strategy must also provide for additional monitoring sites if the IMPROVE network is not sufficient to determine whether RPGs will be met.
The SIP must also provide for the following:
• Procedures for using monitoring data and other information in a state with mandatory Class I areas to determine the contribution of emissions from within the state to regional haze visibility impairment at Class I areas both within and outside the state;
• Procedures for using monitoring data and other information in a state with no mandatory Class I areas to determine the contribution of emissions from within the state to regional haze visibility impairment at Class I areas in other states;
• Reporting of all visibility monitoring data to the Administrator at least annually for each Class I area in the state, and where possible, in electronic format;
• Developing a statewide inventory of emissions of pollutants that are reasonably anticipated to cause or contribute to visibility impairment in any Class I area. The inventory must include emissions for a baseline year, emissions for the most recent year for which data are available, and estimates of future projected emissions. A state must also make a commitment to update the inventory periodically; and
• Other elements, including reporting, recordkeeping, and other measures necessary to assess and report on visibility.
The RHR requires control strategies to cover an initial implementation period extending to the year 2018, with a comprehensive reassessment and revision of those strategies, as appropriate, every 10 years thereafter. Periodic SIP revisions must meet the core requirements of section 51.308(d) with the exception of BART. The requirement to evaluate sources for BART applies only to the first regional haze SIP. Facilities subject-to-BART must continue to comply with the BART provisions of section 51.308(e), as noted above. Periodic SIP revisions will assure that the statutory requirement of reasonable progress will continue to be met.
The RHR requires that states consult with FLMs before adopting and submitting their SIPs. 40 CFR 51.308(i). States must provide FLMs an opportunity for consultation, in person and at least 60 days prior to holding any public hearing on the SIP. This consultation must include the opportunity for the FLMs to discuss their assessment of impairment of visibility in any Class I area and to offer recommendations on the development of the RPGs and on the development and implementation of strategies to address visibility impairment. Further, a state must include in its SIP a description of how it addressed any comments provided by the FLMs. Finally, a SIP must provide procedures for continuing consultation between the state and FLMs regarding the state's visibility protection program, including development and review of SIP revisions, five-year progress reports, and the implementation of other programs having the potential to contribute to impairment of visibility in Class I areas.
We signed our notice of proposed rulemaking on May 23, 2013,
In our 2013 proposal we proposed to disapprove the following:
• The State's nitrogen oxides (NO
• The State's NO
• Wyoming's reasonable progress goals (RPGs).
• The State's monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in Chapter 6.4 of the SIP.
• Portions of the State's long-term strategy (LTS) that rely on or reflect other aspects of the regional haze SIP that we are disapproving.
• The provisions necessary to meet the requirements for the coordination of the review of the reasonably attributable visibility impairment (RAVI) and the regional haze LTS.
We proposed the promulgation of a FIP to address the deficiencies in the Wyoming regional haze SIP that we identified in the proposed notice. The proposed FIP included the following elements:
• RPGs consistent with the SIP limits proposed for approval and the proposed FIP limits.
• Monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements applicable to all BART and reasonable progress sources for which there is a SIP or FIP emissions limit.
• LTS elements pertaining to emission limits and compliance schedules for the proposed BART and reasonable progress FIP emission limits.
• Provisions to ensure the coordination of the RAVI and regional haze LTS.
We also requested comment on an alternative proposal, related to the State's NO
We requested comments on all aspects of our proposed action. In our proposed rulemaking, we provided a 60-day comment period, with the comment period closing on August 9, 2013. We also held a public hearing on June 24, 2013, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. We received requests from Wyoming's governor, congressional delegation, and Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), among others, for additional public hearings and an extended public comment period. As a result, we held two more public hearings. We held a hearing on July 17, 2013, in Cheyenne, Wyoming, and on July 26, 2013, in Casper, Wyoming. We also extended the comment period to August 26, 2013. We provided public notice of the additional hearings and extension of the public comment period on July 8, 2013. 78 FR 40654.
Based upon comments received on our proposed action, in this final action we are partially approving and partially disapproving Wyoming's regional haze SIP submitted on January 12, 2011. We are approving the majority of the State's regional haze determinations. For the fifteen coal fired power plant units in Wyoming subject to the regional haze requirements, we are approving the State's NO
• The State's NO
• Wyoming's RPGs.
• The State's monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in Chapter 6.4 of the SIP.
• Portions of the State's LTS that rely on or reflect other aspects of the regional haze SIP that we are disapproving.
• The provisions necessary to meet the requirements for the coordination of the review of the RAVI and the regional haze LTS.
The final FIP includes the following elements:
• RPGs consistent with the SIP emission limits finalized for approval and the finalized FIP emission limits.
• Monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements applicable to all BART sources for which there is a SIP or FIP emissions limit.
• LTS elements pertaining to emission limits and compliance schedules for the finalized FIP emission limits.
• Provisions to ensure the coordination of the RAVI and regional haze LTS.
Although we are promulgating a Federal plan, a state may always submit a new regional haze SIP to EPA for review and we would welcome such a submission. The CAA requires EPA to take action on such a SIP submittal that is determined to be complete within 12 months. If the State were to submit a revision meeting the requirements of the CAA and the regional haze regulations, we would propose approval of the State's plan as expeditiously as practicable. We are mindful of the costs of our final action but have considered the costs and visibility improvement that other states and EPA have required for BART controls.
Table 1 shows the NO
As described in this section and elsewhere in today's final rule, we have revised our cost of compliance analysis and visibility improvement modeling from our June 10, 2013 proposed action for all of the BART and reasonable progress electric generating units (EGUs).
EPA revised the cost analyses from those found in the proposed rule based upon input from various commenters. Some of factors that caused us to revise our cost estimates included accounting for site elevation in the SCR capital cost, change in SCR reagent to anhydrous ammonia from urea, change in auxiliary electrical cost from market price to generating cost, change in urea SNCR chemical utilization for some units due to high furnace temperatures, and consideration of shorter plant lifetimes in some instances. In addition, EPA incorporated some of the costs provided by commenters in their site specific cost estimates where we found those costs to be sufficiently supported. Per EPA's Control Cost Manual (CCM), use of site specific cost estimates is preferable to the use of generalized costs where those site specific costs can be supported and are appropriate.
EPA addressed comments on the visibility improvement modeling in the proposed rule by developing a new protocol that makes several improvements in the modeling, including the use of the current regulatory version of the CALPUFF model (version 5.8), the use of an improved method to assess the effects of pollutants on light scattering and visibility impairment (Method 8), the use of lower background ammonia concentrations, and the use of an ammonia limiting correction for BART sources with multiple units. In particular, we have used new values for ammonia background that reflect robust monitoring data and the appropriate default concentrations for the geography in the state.
The results of our revised cost analysis, along with the revised visibility impacts, are presented in Tables 2 through 17 below and summarized for each source below the set of tables for that source. Details regarding our revised cost analysis and visibility improvement modeling can be found in the docket.